Personal profile


Erica began working at the University of Huddersfield in 2014, and is currently a Senior Lecturer in Forensic Speech Science. Erica completed a BA in Linguistics at the University of California San Diego. She then came to the UK to pursue her interests in Forensic Speech Science, and completed an MSc and PhD at the University of York in Forensic Speech Science. Her PhD was supported by a Marie Curie Early Stage Research Fellowship with the Bayesian Biometrics for Forensics Training Network (under the FP7 Framework). Erica’s PhD was supervised by Professor Peter French, one of the world’s leading experts in Forensic Phonetics, and looked at the calculation of likelihood ratios in forensic speaker comparisons using phonetic and linguistic parameters.

Erica has published and presented internationally, she has been invited to speak to government bodies about her work (Brazil, Netherlands, and the UK), and her research has also been cited in court cases in the USA, UK, and Australia.

Research Expertise and Interests

  • Forensic speech science and forensic phonetics
  • Phonetics
  • Phonology
  • Sociolinguistics
  • Sociophonetics
  • Forensic speaker comparison


  • Forensic Speech Science
  • Forensic Phonetics
  • Forensic Speaker Comparison
  • Phonetics
  • Socio-Phonetics
  • Acoustics
  • Bayesian Statistics
  • Likelihood Ratios
  • Methodologies for Analyzing and Presenting Evidence

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Projects 2016 2019

Research Output 2011 2018

  • 7 Article
  • 2 Conference contribution
  • 1 Chapter
  • 1 Review article

What the fuc*? Using acoustic and pragmatic methods to determine the meaning of expletives in a scene from The Wire

Gold, E. & McIntyre, D. 20 Apr 2018 (Accepted/In press) Pragmatics and Literature. Chapman, S. & Clark, B. (eds.). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Theory of Meaning

Speaker Identification Using Laughter in a Close Social Network

Land, E. & Gold, E. 15 Dec 2017 In : International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law. 24, 2, p. 201-225 25 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

social network

What the fuck? Making sense of expletives in The Wire

Gold, E. & McIntyre, D. May 2017 Babel: The Language Magazine, 19, p. 28-31 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to specialist publicationArticle

Front-end approaches to the issue of correlations in forensic speaker comparison

Gold, E. & Hughes, V. 2015 Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Glasgow, UK: University of Glasgow, p. 1-5 5 p. 486

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
6 Citations

Issues and opportunities: The application of the numerical likelihood ratio framework to forensic speaker comparison

Gold, E. & Hughes, V. Jul 2014 In : Science and Justice. 54, 4, p. 292-299 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Forensic Sciences
Direction compound