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Personal profile


Paul heads up the Bio-Metrology Research Group and is a key member and co-investigator in the EPSRC Future Metrology Hub with responsibility as research lead in the area of metrology for medical and biological applications. This remit bridges aspects of implant technology to characterisation of bio-active films and biological structures.

In January 2014 Paul took the role of Senior Lecturer in Automotive and Mechanical Engineering within the School of Computing Engineering and has performed various roles within the School serving as Director of Graduate Education, Deputy Director of Graduate Education, Deputy UoA Coordinator for Aeronautical, Mechanical, Chemical and Manufacturing Engineering, course leader for BEng/MEng Mechanical Engineering, course leader for BEng/MEng Energy Engineering and admissions tutor for the mechanical engineering subject area. His academic duties include teaching of Mechanical Science, Eco-Design & IPR and Dimensional Measurement Systems. Paul is also a key member of the EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology.

Paul studied for a BEng in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Birmingham, graduating in 1999. He then moved on to complete an MSc in Engineering Design and Its Management at the University of Huddersfield, graduating in 2000.

As a direct result of his MSc work Paul went to work for DePuy International Ltd, a leading orthopaedics manufacturing company and part of the Johnson and Johnson group of companies. His work there led on to a PhD with the Surface Metrology Group at the Centre for Precision Technologies under the supervision of Prof Liam Blunt and Prof Jane Jiang with most of the project work completed at DePuy in Leeds and leading to graduation in 2008. Paul's PhD work involved the development of methods for the simulation and characterisation of wear in orthopaedic knee replacement joints.

In 2007 Paul was taken on as a Research Fellow at the Centre for Precision Technologies and then in 2011 as a Senior Research Fellow within the EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology where he developed a reputation as a world renowned expert on the subject of orthopaedic wear measurement.

Research Expertise and Interests

  • Application of metrology to assess functionality of components and surfaces and creation of metrology-based visualisation tools.
  • Traceable metrology for characterisation of retrieved medical implants
  • Measurement of wear on non-bearing orthopaedic surfaces
  • Application of metrology to additive manufacturing
  • Industrial application and best practice in micro-CT
  • Imaging for characterisation of surface biofilms
  • Application and assessment of measurement uncertainty
  • Application of metrology to healthcare product development
  • Development of international standards (ASTM, ISO)
  • Industrial metrology education (andragogy)
  • Forensic metrology

Research Degree Supervision


  • Orthopaedic Implants
  • Metrology
  • Forensic Archaeology
  • Surface Metrology
  • Biofilms
  • Wear
  • Additive Manufacturing
  • Training

Fingerprint Fingerprint is based on mining the text of the person's scientific documents to create an index of weighted terms, which defines the key subjects of each individual researcher.

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Wear of materials Engineering & Materials Science
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Coordinate measuring machines Engineering & Materials Science

Network Recent external collaboration on country level. Dive into details by clicking on the dots.

Projects 2015 2023

Future Advanced Metrology Hub

Jiang, X., Martin, H., Longstaff, A., Kadirkamanathan, V., Turner, M. S., Keogh, P., Scott, P., McLeay, T., Blunt, L., Zeng, W., Huntley, J. M., Bills, P., Fletcher, S., Gao, F., Coupland, J. M., Kinnell, P., Mahfouf, M. & Mullineux, G.


Project: ResearchResearch Council

Research Output 2004 2019

The effect of primer cap material on ballistic toolmark evidence

Addinall, K., Zeng, W., Bills, P., Wilcock, P. & Blunt, L., 27 Feb 2019, (Accepted/In press) In : Forensic Science International.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Contacts (fluid mechanics)

Characterisation of powder-filled defects in additive manufactured surfaces using X-ray CT

Tawfik, A., Bills, P., Blunt, L. & Racasan, R., 1 Feb 2018, 8th Conference on Industrial Computed Tomography. 8 p. (Open Access Database of Nondestructive Testing).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
X rays
3D printers

Characterisation of wear areas on UHMWPE total knee replacement prostheses through study of their areal surface topographical parameters

Holland, M., Fleming, L., Walton, K., Cerquiglini, A., Hothi, H., Hart, A., Skinner, J. & Bills, P. J., 5 Jun 2018, In : Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. 6, 3

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Knee prostheses
Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylenes
molecular weight

Characterization of Material Loss from Femoral Stem Taper Surfaces through Development of a Responsive Morphological Filtering Technique

Dransfield, K., Racasan, R., Blunt, L. & Bills, P., 1 Jun 2018, Beyond The Implant: Retrieval Analysis Methods for Implant Surveillance. Mihalko, W. M., Lemons, J. E., Greenwald, A. S. & Kurtz, S. M. (eds.). West Conshohocken, USA: ASTM International, p. 173-190 18 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Bearings (structural)
Wear of materials

Activities 2002 2018

Biotribology (Journal)

Paul Bills (Reviewer)
2 Oct 2018 → …

Activity: Publication peer-review and editorial work typesPublication Peer-review

Precision Engineering (Journal)

Paul Bills (Member of editorial board)
12 Dec 2018 → …

Activity: Publication peer-review and editorial work typesEditorial work

Challenges in Medical Device Development: Using Metrology to Unlock the Answers

Paul Bills (Speaker)
1 Jun 2018

Activity: Talk or presentation typesInvited talk

Creation of a methodology for three-dimensional characterisation of volumetric wear on total knee replacement components

Matthew Holland (Speaker), Radu Racasan (Contributor to Paper or Presentation), Paul Bills (Contributor to Paper or Presentation)
25 Sep 201829 Sep 2018

Activity: Talk or presentation typesOral presentation

Measurement of two-dimensional linear wear on total knee replacement prostheses using co-ordinate metrology and fitting techniques

Matthew Holland (Speaker), Radu Racasan (Contributor to Paper or Presentation), Paul Bills (Contributor to Paper or Presentation)
18 Jun 201821 Jun 2018

Activity: Talk or presentation typesOral presentation