Alginate is an attractive marine resource-based biopolymer, which has been widely used in pharmaceutical, food and textile industries. This paper reviewed the latest development of the conventional and alternative processes for alginate extraction from brown seaweed. To improve extraction yield and product quality, various studies have been carried out to optimize the operation condition. Based on literature survey, the most commonly used protocol is soaking milled seaweed in 2% (w/v) formaldehyde, overnight, solid loading ratio of 1:10–20 (dry weight biomass to solution), then collecting the solid for acid pre-treatment with HCl 0.2–2% (w/v), 40–60 ◦C, 1:10–30 ratio for 2–4 h. Next, the solid residue from the acid pre-treatment is extracted using Na 2CO 3 at 2–4% (w/v), 40–60 ◦C, 2–3 h, 1:10–30 ratio. Then the liquid portion is precipitated by ethanol (95%+) with a ratio of 1:1 (v/v). Finally, the solid output is dried in oven at 50–60 ◦C. Novel extraction methods using ultrasound, microwave, enzymes and extrusion improved the extraction yield and alginate properties, but the financial benefits have not been fully justified yet. To improve the sustainable production of alginate, it is required to promote seaweed cultivation, reduce water footprint, decrease organic solvent usage and co-produce alginate with other value-added products.