A mitochondrial stratigraphy for Island Southeast Asia

Catherine Hill, Pedro Soares, Maru Mormina, Vincent Macaulay, Dougie Clarke, Petya B. Blumbach, Matthieu Vizuete-Forster, Peter Forster, David Bulbeck, Stephen Oppenheimer, Martin Richards

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167 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) was first colonized by modern humans at least 45,000 years ago, but the extent to which the modern inhabitants trace their ancestry to the first settlers is a matter of debate. It is widely held, in both archaeology and linguistics, that they are largely descended from a second wave of dispersal, proto-Austronesian-speaking agriculturalists who originated in China and spread to Taiwan ∼5,500 years ago. From there, they are thought to have dispersed into ISEA ∼4,000 years ago, assimilating the indigenous populations. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA diversity in the region is extremely high and includes a large number of indigenous clades. Only a fraction of these date back to the time of first settlement, and the majority appear to mark dispersals in the late-Pleistocene or early-Holocene epoch most likely triggered by postglacial flooding. There are much closer genetic links to Taiwan than to the mainland, but most of these probably predated the mid-Holocene "Out of Taiwan" event as traditionally envisioned. Only ∼20% at most of modern mitochondrial DNAs in ISEA could be linked to such an event, suggesting that, if an agriculturalist migration did take place, it was demographically minor, at least with regard to the involvement of women.

LanguageEnglish
Pages29-43
Number of pages15
JournalAmerican Journal of Human Genetics
Volume80
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2007

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Southeastern Asia
Taiwan
Islands
Mitochondrial DNA
Archaeology
Linguistics
Population Groups
China

Cite this

Hill, Catherine ; Soares, Pedro ; Mormina, Maru ; Macaulay, Vincent ; Clarke, Dougie ; Blumbach, Petya B. ; Vizuete-Forster, Matthieu ; Forster, Peter ; Bulbeck, David ; Oppenheimer, Stephen ; Richards, Martin. / A mitochondrial stratigraphy for Island Southeast Asia. In: American Journal of Human Genetics. 2007 ; Vol. 80, No. 1. pp. 29-43.
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Hill, C, Soares, P, Mormina, M, Macaulay, V, Clarke, D, Blumbach, PB, Vizuete-Forster, M, Forster, P, Bulbeck, D, Oppenheimer, S & Richards, M 2007, 'A mitochondrial stratigraphy for Island Southeast Asia', American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 29-43. https://doi.org/10.1086/510412

A mitochondrial stratigraphy for Island Southeast Asia. / Hill, Catherine; Soares, Pedro; Mormina, Maru; Macaulay, Vincent; Clarke, Dougie; Blumbach, Petya B.; Vizuete-Forster, Matthieu; Forster, Peter; Bulbeck, David; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Richards, Martin.

In: American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. 80, No. 1, 01.2007, p. 29-43.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Hill C, Soares P, Mormina M, Macaulay V, Clarke D, Blumbach PB et al. A mitochondrial stratigraphy for Island Southeast Asia. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2007 Jan;80(1):29-43. https://doi.org/10.1086/510412