A novel mammalian glucokinase exhibiting exclusive inorganic polyphosphate dependence in the cell nucleus

Antasar Ali, D. Claire Wathes, Angelina Swali, Helena Burns, Shamus Burns

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background
Hexokinase and glucokinase enzymes are ubiquitously expressed and use ATP and ADP as substrates in mammalian systems and a variety of polyphosphate substrates and/or ATP in some eukaryotic and microbial systems. Polyphosphate synthesising or utilizing enzymes are widely expressed in microbial systems but have not been reported in mammalian systems, despite the presence of polyphosphate in mammalian cells. Only two micro-organisms have previously been shown to express an enzyme that uses polyphosphate exclusively.

Methods
A variety of experimental approaches, including NMR and NAD-linked assay systems were used to conduct a biochemical investigation of polyphosphate dependent glucokinase activity in mammalian tissues.

Results
A novel mammalian glucokinase, highly responsive to hexametaphosphate (HMP) but not ATP or ADP as a phosphoryl donor is present in the nuclei of mammalian hepatocytes. The liver enzyme exhibited sigmoidal kinetics with respect to glucose with a S0.5 of 12 mM, similar to the known kinetics of mammalian ATP-glucokinase. The Km for HMP (0.5 mM) was also similar to that of phosphoryl donors for mammalian ATP-glucokinases. The new enzyme was inhibited by several nucleotide phosphates.

Conclusions
We report the discovery of a polyphosphate-dependent enzyme system in mammalian cells with kinetics similar to established ATP-dependent glucokinase, also known to have a nuclear location. The kinetics suggest possible regulatory or redox protective roles.

General significance
The role of polyphosphate in mammalian systems has remained an enigma for decades, and the present report describes progress on the significance of this compound in intracellular metabolism in mammals.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)151-157
Number of pages7
JournalBiochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Volume12
Early online date20 Sep 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017

Fingerprint

Glucokinase
Polyphosphates
Cell Nucleus
Adenosine Triphosphate
Cells
Enzymes
polyphosphate-glucose phosphotransferase
Kinetics
Adenosine Diphosphate
Mammals
NAD
Substrates
Oxidation-Reduction
Hepatocytes
Metabolism
Liver
Nucleotides
Phosphates
Assays
Glucose

Cite this

Ali, Antasar ; Wathes, D. Claire ; Swali, Angelina ; Burns, Helena ; Burns, Shamus. / A novel mammalian glucokinase exhibiting exclusive inorganic polyphosphate dependence in the cell nucleus. In: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports. 2017 ; Vol. 12. pp. 151-157.
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abstract = "BackgroundHexokinase and glucokinase enzymes are ubiquitously expressed and use ATP and ADP as substrates in mammalian systems and a variety of polyphosphate substrates and/or ATP in some eukaryotic and microbial systems. Polyphosphate synthesising or utilizing enzymes are widely expressed in microbial systems but have not been reported in mammalian systems, despite the presence of polyphosphate in mammalian cells. Only two micro-organisms have previously been shown to express an enzyme that uses polyphosphate exclusively.MethodsA variety of experimental approaches, including NMR and NAD-linked assay systems were used to conduct a biochemical investigation of polyphosphate dependent glucokinase activity in mammalian tissues.ResultsA novel mammalian glucokinase, highly responsive to hexametaphosphate (HMP) but not ATP or ADP as a phosphoryl donor is present in the nuclei of mammalian hepatocytes. The liver enzyme exhibited sigmoidal kinetics with respect to glucose with a S0.5 of 12 mM, similar to the known kinetics of mammalian ATP-glucokinase. The Km for HMP (0.5 mM) was also similar to that of phosphoryl donors for mammalian ATP-glucokinases. The new enzyme was inhibited by several nucleotide phosphates.ConclusionsWe report the discovery of a polyphosphate-dependent enzyme system in mammalian cells with kinetics similar to established ATP-dependent glucokinase, also known to have a nuclear location. The kinetics suggest possible regulatory or redox protective roles.General significanceThe role of polyphosphate in mammalian systems has remained an enigma for decades, and the present report describes progress on the significance of this compound in intracellular metabolism in mammals.",
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A novel mammalian glucokinase exhibiting exclusive inorganic polyphosphate dependence in the cell nucleus. / Ali, Antasar; Wathes, D. Claire; Swali, Angelina; Burns, Helena; Burns, Shamus.

In: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, Vol. 12, 01.12.2017, p. 151-157.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A novel mammalian glucokinase exhibiting exclusive inorganic polyphosphate dependence in the cell nucleus

AU - Ali, Antasar

AU - Wathes, D. Claire

AU - Swali, Angelina

AU - Burns, Helena

AU - Burns, Shamus

PY - 2017/12/1

Y1 - 2017/12/1

N2 - BackgroundHexokinase and glucokinase enzymes are ubiquitously expressed and use ATP and ADP as substrates in mammalian systems and a variety of polyphosphate substrates and/or ATP in some eukaryotic and microbial systems. Polyphosphate synthesising or utilizing enzymes are widely expressed in microbial systems but have not been reported in mammalian systems, despite the presence of polyphosphate in mammalian cells. Only two micro-organisms have previously been shown to express an enzyme that uses polyphosphate exclusively.MethodsA variety of experimental approaches, including NMR and NAD-linked assay systems were used to conduct a biochemical investigation of polyphosphate dependent glucokinase activity in mammalian tissues.ResultsA novel mammalian glucokinase, highly responsive to hexametaphosphate (HMP) but not ATP or ADP as a phosphoryl donor is present in the nuclei of mammalian hepatocytes. The liver enzyme exhibited sigmoidal kinetics with respect to glucose with a S0.5 of 12 mM, similar to the known kinetics of mammalian ATP-glucokinase. The Km for HMP (0.5 mM) was also similar to that of phosphoryl donors for mammalian ATP-glucokinases. The new enzyme was inhibited by several nucleotide phosphates.ConclusionsWe report the discovery of a polyphosphate-dependent enzyme system in mammalian cells with kinetics similar to established ATP-dependent glucokinase, also known to have a nuclear location. The kinetics suggest possible regulatory or redox protective roles.General significanceThe role of polyphosphate in mammalian systems has remained an enigma for decades, and the present report describes progress on the significance of this compound in intracellular metabolism in mammals.

AB - BackgroundHexokinase and glucokinase enzymes are ubiquitously expressed and use ATP and ADP as substrates in mammalian systems and a variety of polyphosphate substrates and/or ATP in some eukaryotic and microbial systems. Polyphosphate synthesising or utilizing enzymes are widely expressed in microbial systems but have not been reported in mammalian systems, despite the presence of polyphosphate in mammalian cells. Only two micro-organisms have previously been shown to express an enzyme that uses polyphosphate exclusively.MethodsA variety of experimental approaches, including NMR and NAD-linked assay systems were used to conduct a biochemical investigation of polyphosphate dependent glucokinase activity in mammalian tissues.ResultsA novel mammalian glucokinase, highly responsive to hexametaphosphate (HMP) but not ATP or ADP as a phosphoryl donor is present in the nuclei of mammalian hepatocytes. The liver enzyme exhibited sigmoidal kinetics with respect to glucose with a S0.5 of 12 mM, similar to the known kinetics of mammalian ATP-glucokinase. The Km for HMP (0.5 mM) was also similar to that of phosphoryl donors for mammalian ATP-glucokinases. The new enzyme was inhibited by several nucleotide phosphates.ConclusionsWe report the discovery of a polyphosphate-dependent enzyme system in mammalian cells with kinetics similar to established ATP-dependent glucokinase, also known to have a nuclear location. The kinetics suggest possible regulatory or redox protective roles.General significanceThe role of polyphosphate in mammalian systems has remained an enigma for decades, and the present report describes progress on the significance of this compound in intracellular metabolism in mammals.

KW - Glucokinase

KW - Hexokinase

KW - Polyphosphate

KW - Evolution

U2 - 10.1016/j.bbrep.2017.09.004

DO - 10.1016/j.bbrep.2017.09.004

M3 - Article

VL - 12

SP - 151

EP - 157

JO - Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports

JF - Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports

SN - 2405-5808

ER -