A Parametric Product Design Framework for the Development of Mass Customized Head/Face (Eyewear) Products

Xiaobo Bai, Omar Ivan Huerta Cardoso, Ertu Unver, James Allen, Jane Clayton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


This study led to the development of a parametric design method for mass-customised head/face products. A systematic review of different approaches for mass customization was conducted, identifying advantages and limitations for their application to new product development. A parametric modelling algorithm of a 3D human face was developed using selected scanned 3D head models. The algorithm was developed from a set of measurable and adjustable parameter points related to the facial geometry. These parameters were defined using planimetry. Using the assigned parameter values as input, the parametric model generated 3D models of a human face that served as a reference for the design of customized eyewear. The current challenges and opportunities of mass customized head/face products are described, along with the possibilities for new parametric product design approaches to enable rapid manufacturing and mass customization. This study also explored whether a new parametric design framework for mass customization could be effectively implemented as an early-stage new product development strategy for head/face products.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5382
Number of pages20
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2021


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