A predictive model of energy savings from top of rail friction control

Joel VanderMarel, Donald T. Eadie, Kevin D. Oldknow, Simon Iwnicki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper the authors present a predictive model of train energy requirements due to the application of a top of rail friction modifier (TOR-FM) versus dry wheel/rail conditions. Using the VAMPIRE® Pro simulation package, train energy requirements are modeled for two sets of TOR-FM frictional conditions, one using full Kalker coefficients and the other by using a Kalker coefficient of 18%. Both scenarios use a top of rail saturated coefficient of friction of 0.35. Under both TOR-FM frictional conditions, train energy savings are shown for complete laps of the Transportation Technology Center Inc.'s (TTCI) Transit Test Track (TTT) loop, and also when isolating only the tangent section of the loop. However, the magnitude of energy savings varies greatly depending on the Kalker coefficient factor used, highlighting the need to model this relationship as accurately as possible. These simulation results are compared with data obtained from a field study, in which train energy savings of 5.3% (lap) and 7.8% (tangent) are shown due to the application of TOR-FM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-161
Number of pages7
Issue number1-2
Early online date1 Dec 2013
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2014


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