A realist analysis of civilized tourism in China: a cultural structural perspective

Li Li, Jing Wang, Samrat Hazra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the discourse of value-laden tourism research, knowledge about the mechanisms that manifest civilized tourism is limited. This paper uses empirical research as a basis from which to explore the generative powers of civilized tourism at the structural level of society. It identifies the structural properties of civilized tourism and five situational logics. Civilized tourism is related to civility, China’s Dream, and social etiquette. These other ideas provide a condition for civilized tourism to exist. All the situational logics function to co-determine the nature of civilized tourism in the cultural system. Based on the findings, it concludes that the call for civilized tourism in China provides a condition for the formation of ethicality in tourism, which is not reducible to tourism stakeholders. The formation of ethicality is conditioned by the product of past socio-cultural interactions whilst engineered by the protective and corrective situational logics of the idealizations taking place in the present time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)692-719
Number of pages28
JournalJournal of Critical Realism
Issue number4
Early online date27 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2023
Externally publishedYes

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