A realist review of inpatient insulin self-administration policy interventions for people with diabetes in hospital

Amie Bain, Zaheer Babar, Sallianne Kavanagh

Research output: Contribution to journalMeeting Abstractpeer-review


Self-administration of insulin in hospital is recommended by Diabetes UK and NHS Improvement to improve patient outcomes, empower patients to self-care, reduce costs and facilitate better use of resources (1). The availability and use of policies to facilitate self-administration across NHS hospitals varies, therefore further exploration is needed regarding their use (2). As self-administration policies are a ‘complex intervention’, exploration should include elucidation of contextual factors that make the design, implementation, and use of these policies successful.

To discover what works, for whom, in what circumstances, in relation to the implementation of inpatient insulin self-administration policies.

A realist review was conducted to produce programme theories that uncovered the contexts and mechanisms by which self-administration policies are likely to be effective. Theories were developed iteratively using a combination of retroductive theorising, literature searching (Fig. 1) and stakeholder group consultation. Literature reviews included all evidence types published in English; references that failed realist quality assessment were excluded. Data were extracted and coded to programme theories to aid development using NVivo. Results were analysed using Normalisation Process Theory and Kanter’s theory of structural empowerment as a conceptual framework. The RAMESES standards were used to guide study conduct and reporting, and the protocol was published in the PROSPERO register. Ethical approval was not required. Stakeholder involvement throughout ensured that results remained grounded in the practical reality experienced by a range of participants and enhanced the usability of actionable findings.
Original languageEnglish
Article number483
Pages (from-to)i27-i28
Number of pages2
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Issue numberS1
Publication statusPublished - 13 Apr 2023
EventHealth Services Research and Pharmacy Practice Conference 2023: Partnerships in Healthcare: Advancing Sustainable Medicines Optimisation - University of Bradford, Bradford, United Kingdom
Duration: 17 Apr 202318 Apr 2023


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