This work involved the simulation of both a multiphase gas–liquid flow and the electromagnetic field representing a two-electrode capacitance sensor in a circular pipe. The simulation investigates in particular the sensitivity of the sensor orientation around the pipe (i.e., top-to-bottom or side-to-side) that best capture the induced flow patterns. The presented numerical work is a simplified simulation by COMSOL multi-physics which was validated by a systematic and an extensive experimental work, using (a) a specially designed simple capacitance sensor (i.e., concave two electrodes), (b) different gas–liquid superficial velocity combinations, (c) different flow section inclinations, and (d) high-speed camera images. The numerical modelling capacitance values were validated against the experimentally measured values which shows a satisfactory level of agreement with a deviation of less than ±2%. The quantity of finite points was between 280,000 and 340,000, which was influenced by the simulated flow pattern. The simulated cases captured the generated flow patterns and their variation inside the pipe, which was in a good agreement when compared to the experimental work as time-dependent values. It was found that the best orientation for the utilized two-electrode capacitance sensor was the top-to-bottom configuration. This is because the sensor’s electrical field distribution was more sensitive, and capable of detecting a greater range of capacitance values. The sensitivity of the top-to-bottom configuration was 1.25–1.64 times greater than that of the side-to-side configuration. Therefore, for design purposes and performance optimization, it is recommended to use the top-to-bottom configuration.
Al-Alweet, F., Jaworski, A. J., Alghamdi, Y., Almutairi, Z., & Kołłątaj, J. (2020). A Simplified Numerical Approach to Examine the Sensitivity of Two-Electrode Capacitance Sensor Orientation to Capture Different Gas–Liquid Flow Patterns in a Small Circular Pipe. Sensors, 20(17), 1-30. . https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174971