Purpose: The purpose of this study to develop and calibrate a new Hindi logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity chart. Methods: A new Hindi visual acuity chart was designed to logMAR specifications using Hindi optotypes experimentally selected to have similar relative legibility under equivalent spherical and cylindrical defocus. The chart calibration study was carried out in a large clinical setup in India. Participants who were literate in English and Hindi participated in the study. Visual acuity was measured with the new Hindi logMAR chart and a modified ETDRS (m-ETDRS) logMAR chart. The method of presentation was randomized between the charts. Repeat visual acuity was measured on a subsequent day with a second version of the Hindi logMAR chart. Results: The Hindi logMAR chart correlated highly with the m-ETDRS logMAR chart (r2 = 0.92); however, the mean visual acuity difference (Hindi logMAR-m-ETDRS logMAR) was nearly one and half lines (0.13 logMAR, 95% confidence interval [CI] = ±0.15 logMAR). The Hindi logMAR chart also proved to be highly repeatable (r2 = 0.99; mean difference 0.005, 95% CI = ±0.04 logMAR). Conclusion: This study reports the first standardized visual acuity chart developed in Hindi incorporating equal letter legibility and logMAR chart design features. The Hindi logMAR visual acuity chart provides a valid and repeatable tool for the measurement of visual acuity in native Hindi language speakers. Future use of the new Hindi chart should incorporate an increase in optotype size of 0.13 logMAR.