A Survey on the Detection and Impacts of Deepfakes in Visual, Audio, and Textual Formats

Rami Mubarak, Tariq Alsboui, Omar Alshaikh, Isa Inuwa-Dute, Saad Khan, Simon Parkinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


In the rapidly evolving digital landscape, the generation of fake visual, audio, and textual content poses a significant threat to the trust of society, political stability, and integrity of information. The generation process has been enhanced and simplified using Artificial Intelligence techniques, which have been termed deepfake. Although significant attention has been paid to visual and audio deepfakes, there is also a burgeoning need to consider text-based deepfakes. Due to advancements in natural language processing and large language models, the potential of manipulating textual content to reshape online discourse and misinformation has increased. This study comprehensively examines the multifaceted nature and impacts of deep-fake-generated media. This work explains the broad implications of deepfakes in social, political, economic, and technological domains. State-of-the-art detection methodologies for all types of deepfake are critically reviewed, highlighting the need for unified, real-time, adaptable, and generalised solutions. As the challenges posed by deepfakes intensify, this study underscores the importance of a holistic approach that integrates technical solutions with public awareness and legislative action. By providing a comprehensive overview and establishing a framework for future exploration, this study seeks to assist researchers, policymakers, and practitioners navigate the complexities of deepfake phenomena.
Original languageEnglish
Article number10365143
Pages (from-to)144497-144529
Number of pages33
JournalIEEE Access
Early online date18 Dec 2023
Publication statusPublished - 27 Dec 2023

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