Amid the escalating environmental crises and economic disparities, Circular Economy (CE) has garnered recognition as a pragmatic mechanism for achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In response, several supply chain organisations are integrating CE strategies into their business operations and production processes. Despite these developments and since the introduction of Business Charter for Sustainable Development by the International Chamber of Commerce in 1991, the academic corpus comprehensively connecting CE research themes, catalysts, deterrents, practices with the SDGs has remained limited. To bridge this gap, we present a systematic literature review (SLR) of CE research in operations, supply chain and production management encompassing a time span of 31 years (January 1991–June 2022), by sourcing, screening, and analysing articles obtained from multiple research databases. Our thematic coding analysis generated ten research themes, and subsequently linking them with relevant SDGs. Additionally, we interweaved CE catalysts and deterrents, establishing a connection with the SDGs. This is further enriched with CE strategies aimed at equipping business practitioners to enhance sustainable business performance and contributing to specific SDGs. Lastly, we delineate CE knowledge data management and priority actions frameworks to aid organisations to enhance employee capability and actively leverage digital technologies for implementing CE strategies.