Despite extensive research in the international arena into pain and its management, there is, as yet, little research on the topic of pain in children in Saudi Arabia and in the Gulf countries generally. A systematic review was conducted to explore the impact of education programs on factors affecting paediatric nurses’ postoperative pain management practice. This was done in order to advise the creation of an educational program for nurses in Saudi Arabia. Knowledge about pain, attitudes towards pain, beliefs about children’s pain, perceptions of children’s reports of pain, self-efficacy with regard to pain management, and perceptions of barriers to optimal practice were all considered to be relevant factors. The review was restricted to randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs, excluding studies focussed on chronic pain or populations other than solely children. Studies published in English between 2000 and 2016 were identified using CINAHL, MEDLINE, Ovid SP, The Cochrane Library, ProQuest, and Google Scholar databases. Of 499 published studies identified by the search, 14 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. There was evidence of educational programs exerting a postive impact on enhancing pediatric nurses’ knowledge of pain and modifing their attitudes towards it, but only limited evidence was available about the impact on nurses’ beliefs and perceptions of children’s reports of pain, nurses’ self-efficacy, or barriers to optimal practice. None of the studies was conducted in Saudi Arabia. Studies were needed to address additional aspects of preparedness for effective postperative pain management. Details of educational programs used as experimental intervention must be included in reports.