Advancing theory and application of cognitive research in sport

Using representative tasks to explain and predict skilled anticipation, decision-making, and option-generation behavior

Patrick K. Belling, Joel Suss, Paul Ward

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives
Three main goals were addressed in this research. First, we tested the claims of two cognitive mechanisms that have been proposed to explain expert performance. This was done during assessment and intervention phases of decision making. Second, we tested the validity of an online test of perceptual-cognitive skill in soccer: The Online Assessment of Strategic Skill In Soccer (OASSIS). Third, we compared the OASSIS to other predictors of skill in soccer.

Design
Over the course of a three-part experiment, participants completed an updated version of the option-generation paradigm employed by Ward, Ericsson, and Williams (2013), the OASSIS, and a battery of other cognitive tests. Performance on these tests was used to inform theory and validate the OASSIS as an applied tool for domain professionals.

Methods
NCAA Division 1 and recreational-level soccer players completed a battery of tests, both using paper/pencil (see Ward et al., 2013) and online.

Results
Support for Long Term Working Memory theory (LTWM; see Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995) was observed during both phases of decision making, though the prescriptions of the Take-The-First heuristic (see Johnson & Raab, 2003) tend to hold, particularly within intervention phase. When used to predict skill-group membership, the OASSIS accounted for more variance than domain-general tests of cognition. Furthermore, scores on the OASSIS correlated with other measures of perceptual-cognitive skill in soccer and the process-level predictions made by LTWM.

Conclusions
Updates to our theoretical understanding of expert performance are provided and the validity of the OASSIS is demonstrated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-59
Number of pages15
JournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
Volume16
Issue number1
Early online date15 Aug 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2015

Fingerprint

Soccer
Sports
Decision Making
Research
Long-Term Memory
Short-Term Memory
Cognition
Prescriptions

Cite this

@article{36b28f7059114922a7ff76330a80746f,
title = "Advancing theory and application of cognitive research in sport: Using representative tasks to explain and predict skilled anticipation, decision-making, and option-generation behavior",
abstract = "ObjectivesThree main goals were addressed in this research. First, we tested the claims of two cognitive mechanisms that have been proposed to explain expert performance. This was done during assessment and intervention phases of decision making. Second, we tested the validity of an online test of perceptual-cognitive skill in soccer: The Online Assessment of Strategic Skill In Soccer (OASSIS). Third, we compared the OASSIS to other predictors of skill in soccer.DesignOver the course of a three-part experiment, participants completed an updated version of the option-generation paradigm employed by Ward, Ericsson, and Williams (2013), the OASSIS, and a battery of other cognitive tests. Performance on these tests was used to inform theory and validate the OASSIS as an applied tool for domain professionals.MethodsNCAA Division 1 and recreational-level soccer players completed a battery of tests, both using paper/pencil (see Ward et al., 2013) and online.ResultsSupport for Long Term Working Memory theory (LTWM; see Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995) was observed during both phases of decision making, though the prescriptions of the Take-The-First heuristic (see Johnson & Raab, 2003) tend to hold, particularly within intervention phase. When used to predict skill-group membership, the OASSIS accounted for more variance than domain-general tests of cognition. Furthermore, scores on the OASSIS correlated with other measures of perceptual-cognitive skill in soccer and the process-level predictions made by LTWM.ConclusionsUpdates to our theoretical understanding of expert performance are provided and the validity of the OASSIS is demonstrated.",
keywords = "anticipation, decision making, option generation, perceptual-cognitive expertise, long term working memory theory, take-the-first heuristic",
author = "Belling, {Patrick K.} and Joel Suss and Paul Ward",
year = "2015",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.08.001",
language = "English",
volume = "16",
pages = "45--59",
journal = "Psychology of Sport and Exercise",
issn = "1469-0292",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Advancing theory and application of cognitive research in sport

T2 - Using representative tasks to explain and predict skilled anticipation, decision-making, and option-generation behavior

AU - Belling, Patrick K.

AU - Suss, Joel

AU - Ward, Paul

PY - 2015/1

Y1 - 2015/1

N2 - ObjectivesThree main goals were addressed in this research. First, we tested the claims of two cognitive mechanisms that have been proposed to explain expert performance. This was done during assessment and intervention phases of decision making. Second, we tested the validity of an online test of perceptual-cognitive skill in soccer: The Online Assessment of Strategic Skill In Soccer (OASSIS). Third, we compared the OASSIS to other predictors of skill in soccer.DesignOver the course of a three-part experiment, participants completed an updated version of the option-generation paradigm employed by Ward, Ericsson, and Williams (2013), the OASSIS, and a battery of other cognitive tests. Performance on these tests was used to inform theory and validate the OASSIS as an applied tool for domain professionals.MethodsNCAA Division 1 and recreational-level soccer players completed a battery of tests, both using paper/pencil (see Ward et al., 2013) and online.ResultsSupport for Long Term Working Memory theory (LTWM; see Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995) was observed during both phases of decision making, though the prescriptions of the Take-The-First heuristic (see Johnson & Raab, 2003) tend to hold, particularly within intervention phase. When used to predict skill-group membership, the OASSIS accounted for more variance than domain-general tests of cognition. Furthermore, scores on the OASSIS correlated with other measures of perceptual-cognitive skill in soccer and the process-level predictions made by LTWM.ConclusionsUpdates to our theoretical understanding of expert performance are provided and the validity of the OASSIS is demonstrated.

AB - ObjectivesThree main goals were addressed in this research. First, we tested the claims of two cognitive mechanisms that have been proposed to explain expert performance. This was done during assessment and intervention phases of decision making. Second, we tested the validity of an online test of perceptual-cognitive skill in soccer: The Online Assessment of Strategic Skill In Soccer (OASSIS). Third, we compared the OASSIS to other predictors of skill in soccer.DesignOver the course of a three-part experiment, participants completed an updated version of the option-generation paradigm employed by Ward, Ericsson, and Williams (2013), the OASSIS, and a battery of other cognitive tests. Performance on these tests was used to inform theory and validate the OASSIS as an applied tool for domain professionals.MethodsNCAA Division 1 and recreational-level soccer players completed a battery of tests, both using paper/pencil (see Ward et al., 2013) and online.ResultsSupport for Long Term Working Memory theory (LTWM; see Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995) was observed during both phases of decision making, though the prescriptions of the Take-The-First heuristic (see Johnson & Raab, 2003) tend to hold, particularly within intervention phase. When used to predict skill-group membership, the OASSIS accounted for more variance than domain-general tests of cognition. Furthermore, scores on the OASSIS correlated with other measures of perceptual-cognitive skill in soccer and the process-level predictions made by LTWM.ConclusionsUpdates to our theoretical understanding of expert performance are provided and the validity of the OASSIS is demonstrated.

KW - anticipation

KW - decision making

KW - option generation

KW - perceptual-cognitive expertise

KW - long term working memory theory

KW - take-the-first heuristic

U2 - 10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.08.001

DO - 10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.08.001

M3 - Article

VL - 16

SP - 45

EP - 59

JO - Psychology of Sport and Exercise

JF - Psychology of Sport and Exercise

SN - 1469-0292

IS - 1

ER -