Aeration During Bread Dough Mixing: I. Effect of Direction and Size of a Pressure Step-change During Mixing on the Turnover of Gas

N. L. Chin, P. J. Martin, G. M. Campbell

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20 Citations (Scopus)


The aeration of bread dough during mixing has previously been modelled as a balance between gas entrainment and disentrainment into and out of the dough, from which the gas turnover time was determined. This paper tests this model by mixing dough in a high-speed Tweedy-type mixer which undergoes a pressure step-change midway through mixing. The volume of gas entrained in the dough following the pressure change was calculated from its density. The volume of gas entrained was found to reach a steady state much more quickly following a pressure step-decrease than an increase, appearing to signify gas turnover rates over twice as large. Thus, gas disentrainment was found to be enhanced following a pressure step-decrease in a manner not incorporated into the model. The size of the pressure step-decrease did not appear to affect the gas turnover time, but increasing the pressure step-increase size decreased the gas turnover times. The weak flour doughs exhibited higher gas turnover rates during mixing than the strong flour doughs, in both pressure step-change directions and at all step-sizes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-267
Number of pages7
JournalFood and Bioproducts Processing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2004
Externally publishedYes


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