An Assessment of the Impact of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic on National Antimicrobial Consumption in Jordan

Sayer Al-Azzam, Nizar Mahmoud Mhaidat, Hayaa A. Banat, Mohammad Alfaour, Dana Samih Ahmad, Arno Muller, Adi Al-Nuseirat, Elizabeth A. Lattyak, Barbara R. Conway, Mamoon A. Aldeyab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has overlapping clinical characteristics with bacterial respiratory tract infection, leading to the prescription of potentially unnecessary antibiotics. This study aimed at measuring changes and patterns of national antimicrobial use for one year preceding and one year during the COVID-19 pandemic. Annual national antimicrobial consumption for 2019 and 2020 was obtained from the Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA) following the WHO surveillance methods. The WHO Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe) classification was used. Total antibiotic consumption in 2020 (26.8 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day) decreased by 5.5% compared to 2019 (28.4 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day). There was an increase in the use of several antibiotics during 2020 compared with 2019 (third generation cephalosporins (19%), carbapenems (52%), macrolides (57%), and lincosamides (106%)). In 2020, there was a marked reduction in amoxicillin use (−53%), while the use of azithromycin increased by 74%. National antimicrobial consumption of the Access group decreased by 18% from 2019 to 2020 (59.1% vs. 48.1% of total consumption). The use of the Watch group increased in 2020 by 26%. The study highlighted an increase in the use of certain antibiotics during the pandemic period that are known to be associated with increasing resistance. Efforts to enhance national antimicrobial stewardship are needed to ensure rational use of antimicrobials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number690
Number of pages12
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jun 2021


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