An Eco-Friendly and Hopeful Promise Platform for Delivering Hydrophilic Wound Healing Agents in Topical Administration for Wound Disorder: Diltiazem-Loaded Niosomes

Jafar Akbari, Majid Saeedi, Katayoun Morteza-Semnani, Maryam Ghasemi, Malihe Eshaghi, Mohammad Eghbali, Behrouz Jafarkhani, Seyyed Mobin Rahimnia, Reza Negarandeh, Amirhossein Babaei, Seyyed Mohammad Hassan Hashemi, Kofi Asare-Addo, Ali Nokhodchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purposes: Calcium channel blockers, such as diltiazem (DLZ), are important drugs for wound repair treatment. This current study used an ultrasonic method to increase the cutaneous delivery of (DLZ) niosomes. Methods: The impact of the cholesterol:surfactant ratio on the DLZ-loaded niosome formulations was investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, drug release, skin sensitivity, animal wound repair model, and histopathological assessment were applied to investigate the characteristics, morphology, and therapeutic effectiveness of the DLZ noisome. Results: The results showed that changes in the cholesterol:surfactant ratio can influence the zeta potential and the size of the niosome. The maximum entrapment efficiency was observed to be about 94% when the cholesterol content in the formulation was high. The DLZ release studies revealed that the niosomal formulation was released slowly over the course of 24 h. Macroscopic observations of the wound demonstrated that wound closure in the DLZ-niosome-treated group and the commercial brand was equal and higher than in the other groups (gel base, placebo gel, and negative control). Pathological studies described that the wound repair in the DLZ-niosomal gel group was greater than in the other treatment. All the preparations tested for cutaneous irritation on Wistar rats showed the DLZ niosomal gels to be non-irritating. Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that the prepared DLZ-niosome could be used as a possible nano-vesicle for DLZ cutaneous delivery thus potentially opening up new prospects for the treatment of wound disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1111-1127
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical Innovation
Volume18
Issue number3
Early online date11 Feb 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2023

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