An empirical framework of control methods of victims of human trafficking for sexual exploitation

Maria Ioannou, Miriam S D Oostinga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)


Although human trafficking for sexual exploitation is a frequently discussed area in current research, especially on the way that human traffickers control their victims, a recurrent problem is the lack of empirical basis. The present study examines control methods (or conditions) used against 137 victims of human trafficking for sexual exploitation. A multidimensional scaling analysis (smallest space analysis (SSA-I)) of 23 control methods (and conditions) derived from a content analysis of police files from the Netherlands revealed three distinct forms of control. These could be interpreted in terms of Canter’s Victim Role model that has been the basis for differentiating offending styles in other violent interpersonal offences. Further analysis showed a relationship between these control styles and different types of prostitution. The three Victim as Object, Victim as Vehicle and Victim as Person modes are consistent with different control methods identified in previous research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34-49
Number of pages16
JournalGlobal Crime
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2015


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