An innovative virtual reality training tool for orthognathic surgery

Yeshwanth Pulijala, Minhua Eunice Ma, Matthew Pears, David Peebles, Ashraf Ayoub

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Citations (Scopus)


Virtual reality (VR) surgery using Oculus Rift and Leap Motion devices is a multi-sensory, holistic surgical training experience. A multimedia combination including 360° videos, three-dimensional interaction, and stereoscopic videos in VR has been developed to enable trainees to experience a realistic surgery environment. The innovation allows trainees to interact with the individual components of the maxillofacial anatomy and apply surgical instruments while watching close-up stereoscopic three-dimensional videos of the surgery. In this study, a novel training tool for Le Fort I osteotomy based on immersive virtual reality (iVR) was developed and validated. Seven consultant oral and maxillofacial surgeons evaluated the application for face and content validity. Using a structured assessment process, the surgeons commented on the content of the developed training tool, its realism and usability, and the applicability of VR surgery for orthognathic surgical training. The results confirmed the clinical applicability of VR for delivering training in orthognathic surgery. Modifications were suggested to improve the user experience and interactions with the surgical instruments. This training tool is ready for testing with surgical trainees.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1199-1205
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number9
Early online date15 Feb 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2018


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