An Interlaboratory Comparison of X-Ray Computed Tomography Measurement for Texture and Dimensional Characterisation of Additively Manufactured Parts

Andrew Townsend, Radu Racasan, Richard Leach, Nicola Senin, Adam Thompson, Andrew Ramsey, David Bate, Peter Woolliams, Stephen Brown, Liam Blunt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents the results of the CT-STARR (CT-Surface Texture for Additive Round Robin) Stage 1 interlaboratory comparison. The study compared the results obtained for the extraction of areal surface texture data per ISO 25178-2 from five X-ray computed tomography (CT) volume measurements from each of four laboratories. Two Ti6Al4V ELI (extra-low interstitial) components were included in each of the CT acquisitions. The first component was an additively manufactured (AM) cube manufactured using an Arcam Q10 electron beam melting (EBM) machine. Surface texture data was extracted from CT scans of this part. The values of selected parameters per ISO 25178-2 are reported, including Sa, the arithmetic mean height, for which the values from the Nikon MCT 225 metrology CT measurements were all within 0.5% of the mean reference focus variation measurement. CT resolution requirements are discussed. The second component was a machined dimensional test artefact designed to facilitate independent analysis of CT global voxel scaling errors and surface determination errors. The results of mathematical global scaling and surface determination correction of the dimensional artefact data is reported. The dimensional test artefact errors for the XT H 225 commercial CT for length, outside diameter and inside diameter reduced from -0.27%, -0.83% and -0.54% respectively to less than 0.02% after performing mathematical correction. This work will assist the development of surface texture correction protocols, help define surface-from-CT measurement envelope limits and provide valuable information for an expanded Stage 2 interlaboratory comparison, which will include a more diverse range of CT systems and technologies, further expanding the surface-from-CT knowledge base.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)422-432
Number of pages11
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
Early online date16 Aug 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018


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