A non-intrusive interval precise integration method (IPIM) is proposed in this paper to analyze the transient unbalance response of uncertain rotor systems. The transfer matrix method (TMM) is used to derive the deterministic equations of motion of a hollow-shaft overhung rotor. The uncertain transient dynamic problem is solved by combing the Chebyshev approximation theory with the modified precise integration method (PIM). Transient response bounds are calculated by interval arithmetic of the expansion coefficients. Theoretical error analysis of the proposed method is provided briefly, and its accuracy is further validated by comparing with the scanning method in simulations. Numerical results show that the IPIM can keep good accuracy in vibration prediction of the start-up transient process. Furthermore, the proposed method can also provide theoretical guidance to other transient dynamic mechanical systems with uncertainties.