Due to lower-cost energy supplies elsewhere, Europe needs resource efficient technologies to safeguard the competitiveness of its energy-intensive industries. The technical feasibility of the CCU value chain components (carbon capture, transportation and utilization) has been widely studied in literature. However infrastructural,regulatory and business strategic issues have received less attention. A review of the relevant policies (e.g.European Emissions Trading Scheme, Renewable Fuels and Waste Directives) has been performed. Stakeholder engagement and the stakeholder influence mapping was used to examine potential climate change, circulareconomy, renewable energy and regional industrial development policies that can support CO2 utilization valuechains. The main contribution of the paper is to outline potential benefits of policies to foster the production and uptake of CO2-derived products such as methanol, polyurethane and mineral construction aggregates. Another outcome is to illustrate the role of key policy-making stakeholders in assessing the suitability of current statutes and the impact of potential changes. An important finding was that the development of connectivity infra-structure is a key missing enabler and more attention to policy on infrastructure is required. Finally, the work examines the justification for a CO2 Utilization Directive, comparable to the Carbon Capture and Storage Directive, but considering the current complexity of the European Union (EU) policy landscape.
Castillo-Castillo, A., & Angelis-Dimakis, A. (2019). Analysis and recommendations for European carbon dioxide utilization policies. Journal of Environmental Management, 247, 439-448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.06.092