The anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea stem bark was further evaluated in models which are mediated by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). The effect of the extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock was evaluated by measuring the number of deaths and the levels of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases following intraperitoneal injection of LPS (1μg/kg) into D-galactosamine-primed mice. LPS-induced vascular permeability on the back skin of mice was measured by the local accumulation of Evan's blue after subcutaneous injection of LPS. Pre-treatment with Bridelia ferruginea extract (10-80mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the septic shock syndrome in mice, with 80mg/kg of the extract exhibiting comparable activity as pentoxifylline (100mg/kg). LPS-induced dye leakage in the skin of mice was also suppressed by the extract (10-80mg/kg). Our study suggests that one of the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of Bridelia ferruginea possibly involve the suppression of TNFα up-regulation.