A review of the applicability of electron beam water radiolysis for sewage sludge treatment is presented. Electron beam treatment has been proven to be a successful approach to the disinfection of both wastewater and sewage sludge. Nevertheless, before 2000, there were concerns about the perceived high capital costs of the accelerator and with public acceptance of the usage of radiation for water treatment purposes. Nowadays, with increased knowledge and technological development, it may be not only possible but also desirable to use electron beam technology for risk-free sewage sludge treatment, disposal and bio-friendly fertiliser production. Despite the developing interest in this method, there has been no attempt to perform a review of the pertinent literature relating to this technology. It appears that understanding of the mechanism and primary parameters of disinfection is key to optimising the process. This paper aims to reliably characterise the sewage sludge electron beam treatment process to elucidate its major issues and make recommendations for further development and research.