This paper provides a review of the non-invasive techniques for studying fluidisation phenomena. These include optical photography, X-ray photography, X- and 3,-ray tomography and capacitance tomography. Their specific attributes such as speed, sensitivity and robustness, are outlined and their potential for studying various aspects of gas-solids flow in different modes of fluidization is assessed. Finally a short case study on the monitoring of the flow inside a riser and a cyclone dipleg, using capacitance tomography, is presented.
Dyakowski, T., & Jaworski, A. J. (2001). Application of non-invasive techniques for imaging fluidized beds: A review. In A. Levy, & H. Kalman (Eds.), Handbook of Powder Technology (Vol. 10, pp. 807-823). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-3785(01)80083-X