This paper presents a review of electrical tomography methods for investigating, monitoring and controlling gas–solids and liquid–solids systems. The physical laws governing the electrical measurements and issues associated with image reconstruction are described in some detail. Experimental results, obtained for a number of case studies conducted in the pilot plant scale and industrial rigs, are presented. These include circulating fluidised bed, pneumatic and hydraulic conveyor, multiphase flow metering and hydrocyclone flow. Instantaneous images, captured with the speed up to 200 frames per second, illustrate how flow patterns vary, and reveal the dynamic behaviour of two-phase systems. Application of electrical tomography for control and fault diagnosis in industrial systems is addressed — the examples include dense pneumatic conveying and hydrocyclone performance.
Dyakowski, T., Jeanmeure, L. F. C., & Jaworski, A. J. (2000). Applications of electrical tomography for gas-solids and liquid-solids flow: A review. Powder Technology, 112(3), 174-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-5910(00)00292-8