The application of Artificial Intelligence or AI in education has been the subject of academic research for more than 30 years. The field examines learning wherever it occurs, in traditional classrooms or at workplaces so to support formal education and lifelong learning. It combines interdisciplinary AI and learning sciences (such as education, psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, sociology and anthropology) in order to facilitate the development of effective adaptive learning environments and various flexible, inclusive tools. Nowadays, there are several new challenges in the field of education technology in the era of smart phones, tablets, cloud computing, Big Data, etc., whose current research questions focus on concepts such as ICT-enabled personalized learning, mobile learning, educational games, collaborative learning on social media, MOOCs, augmented reality application in education and so on. Therefore, to meet these new challenges in education, several fields of research using AI have emerged over time to improve teaching and learning using digital technologies. Moreover, each field of research is distinguished by its own vision and methodologies. In this article, to the authors present a state of the art finding in the fields of research of Artificial Intelligence in Education or AIED, Educational Data Mining or EDM and Learning Analytics or LA. We discuss their historical elements, definition attempts, objectives, adopted methodologies, application examples and challenges.