Assessment of gastrointestinal pH, fluid and lymphoid tissue in the guinea pig, rabbit and pig, and implications for their use in drug development

Hamid A Merchant, Emma L McConnell, Fang Liu, Chandrasekaran Ramaswamy, Rucha P Kulkarni, Abdul W Basit, Sudaxshina Murdan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

64 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Laboratory animals are often used in drug delivery and research. However, basic information about their gastrointestinal pH, fluid volume, and lymphoid tissue is not completely known. We have investigated these post-mortem in healthy guinea pigs, rabbits and pigs, to assess their suitability for pre-clinical studies by comparing the results with reported human literature. The mean gastric pH (fed ad libitum) was 2.9 and 4.4 in guinea pig and pig, respectively. In contrast, a very low pH (1.6) was recorded in the rabbits. The small intestinal pH was found in the range of 6.4-7.4 in the guinea pigs and rabbits, whereas lower pH (6.1-6.7) was recorded in the pig, which may have consequences for ionisable or pH responsive systems when tested in pig. A relatively lower pH than in the small intestine was found in the caecum (6.0-6.4) and colon (6.1-6.6) of the guinea pig, rabbit and the pig. The water content in the gastrointestinal tract of guinea pig, rabbit and pig was 51g, 153g and 1546g, respectively. When normalized to the body weight, the guinea pig, had larger amounts of water compared to the rabbit and the pig (guinea pig>rabbit>pig); in contrast, a reverse order was found when normalized to per unit length of the gut (guinea pig<rabbit<pig). The lymphoid tissue distribution (lymphoid follicles, Peyer's patches and long strips) along the length of the gut in these animals is presented; in particular, an abundance of lymphoid tissue was found in pig's stomach, small intestine and caecum, and rabbit's appendix. Their ample presence indicated the potential utility of these animal species in oral and colonic vaccination. These differences in the gastrointestinal parameters of the guinea pig, rabbit and pig reiterates the crucial importance of correctly selecting animal models for pre-clinical studies.
LanguageEnglish
Pages3-10
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Volume42
Issue number1-2
Early online date6 Oct 2010
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jan 2011
Externally publishedYes

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Lymphoid Tissue
Guinea Pigs
Swine
Rabbits
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Small Intestine
Stomach
Peyer's Patches
Water
Appendix
Laboratory Animals
Tissue Distribution
Gastrointestinal Tract
Colon
Vaccination
Animal Models
Body Weight

Cite this

Merchant, Hamid A ; McConnell, Emma L ; Liu, Fang ; Ramaswamy, Chandrasekaran ; Kulkarni, Rucha P ; Basit, Abdul W ; Murdan, Sudaxshina. / Assessment of gastrointestinal pH, fluid and lymphoid tissue in the guinea pig, rabbit and pig, and implications for their use in drug development. In: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011 ; Vol. 42, No. 1-2. pp. 3-10.
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Assessment of gastrointestinal pH, fluid and lymphoid tissue in the guinea pig, rabbit and pig, and implications for their use in drug development. / Merchant, Hamid A; McConnell, Emma L; Liu, Fang; Ramaswamy, Chandrasekaran; Kulkarni, Rucha P; Basit, Abdul W; Murdan, Sudaxshina.

In: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 42, No. 1-2, 18.01.2011, p. 3-10.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Assessment of gastrointestinal pH, fluid and lymphoid tissue in the guinea pig, rabbit and pig, and implications for their use in drug development

AU - Merchant, Hamid A

AU - McConnell, Emma L

AU - Liu, Fang

AU - Ramaswamy, Chandrasekaran

AU - Kulkarni, Rucha P

AU - Basit, Abdul W

AU - Murdan, Sudaxshina

N1 - Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PY - 2011/1/18

Y1 - 2011/1/18

N2 - Laboratory animals are often used in drug delivery and research. However, basic information about their gastrointestinal pH, fluid volume, and lymphoid tissue is not completely known. We have investigated these post-mortem in healthy guinea pigs, rabbits and pigs, to assess their suitability for pre-clinical studies by comparing the results with reported human literature. The mean gastric pH (fed ad libitum) was 2.9 and 4.4 in guinea pig and pig, respectively. In contrast, a very low pH (1.6) was recorded in the rabbits. The small intestinal pH was found in the range of 6.4-7.4 in the guinea pigs and rabbits, whereas lower pH (6.1-6.7) was recorded in the pig, which may have consequences for ionisable or pH responsive systems when tested in pig. A relatively lower pH than in the small intestine was found in the caecum (6.0-6.4) and colon (6.1-6.6) of the guinea pig, rabbit and the pig. The water content in the gastrointestinal tract of guinea pig, rabbit and pig was 51g, 153g and 1546g, respectively. When normalized to the body weight, the guinea pig, had larger amounts of water compared to the rabbit and the pig (guinea pig>rabbit>pig); in contrast, a reverse order was found when normalized to per unit length of the gut (guinea pig<rabbit<pig). The lymphoid tissue distribution (lymphoid follicles, Peyer's patches and long strips) along the length of the gut in these animals is presented; in particular, an abundance of lymphoid tissue was found in pig's stomach, small intestine and caecum, and rabbit's appendix. Their ample presence indicated the potential utility of these animal species in oral and colonic vaccination. These differences in the gastrointestinal parameters of the guinea pig, rabbit and pig reiterates the crucial importance of correctly selecting animal models for pre-clinical studies.

AB - Laboratory animals are often used in drug delivery and research. However, basic information about their gastrointestinal pH, fluid volume, and lymphoid tissue is not completely known. We have investigated these post-mortem in healthy guinea pigs, rabbits and pigs, to assess their suitability for pre-clinical studies by comparing the results with reported human literature. The mean gastric pH (fed ad libitum) was 2.9 and 4.4 in guinea pig and pig, respectively. In contrast, a very low pH (1.6) was recorded in the rabbits. The small intestinal pH was found in the range of 6.4-7.4 in the guinea pigs and rabbits, whereas lower pH (6.1-6.7) was recorded in the pig, which may have consequences for ionisable or pH responsive systems when tested in pig. A relatively lower pH than in the small intestine was found in the caecum (6.0-6.4) and colon (6.1-6.6) of the guinea pig, rabbit and the pig. The water content in the gastrointestinal tract of guinea pig, rabbit and pig was 51g, 153g and 1546g, respectively. When normalized to the body weight, the guinea pig, had larger amounts of water compared to the rabbit and the pig (guinea pig>rabbit>pig); in contrast, a reverse order was found when normalized to per unit length of the gut (guinea pig<rabbit<pig). The lymphoid tissue distribution (lymphoid follicles, Peyer's patches and long strips) along the length of the gut in these animals is presented; in particular, an abundance of lymphoid tissue was found in pig's stomach, small intestine and caecum, and rabbit's appendix. Their ample presence indicated the potential utility of these animal species in oral and colonic vaccination. These differences in the gastrointestinal parameters of the guinea pig, rabbit and pig reiterates the crucial importance of correctly selecting animal models for pre-clinical studies.

KW - Animals

KW - Body Fluids/chemistry

KW - Drug Design

KW - Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods

KW - Gastrointestinal Tract/anatomy & histology

KW - Guinea Pigs

KW - Hydrogen-Ion Concentration

KW - Lymphoid Tissue/anatomy & histology

KW - Male

KW - Models, Animal

KW - Rabbits

KW - Species Specificity

KW - Swine

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DO - 10.1016/j.ejps.2010.09.019

M3 - Article

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JO - European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

T2 - European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

JF - European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

SN - 0928-0987

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