Atorvastatin Entrapped Noisome (Atrosome): Green Preparation Approach for Wound Healing

Shidrokh Abootorabi, Jafar Akbari, Majid Saeedi, Mohammad Seyedabadi, Mohammad Ranaee, Kofi Asare-Addo, Ali Nokhodchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The present study aimed to formulate atorvastatin niosome (Atrosome) through an ultrasonic technique and to determine its contribution to the extent of wound healing in an animal model. The optimized Atrosome formulation (Atrosome-2) was stable at 4 °C for 3 months. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), ATR-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis revealed that atorvastatin (ATR) was well encapsulated within the niosomes either in a stabilized amorphous form or a molecularly dispersed state. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM) confirmed the spherical nature of the Atrosomes. The optimized formulation showed polydispersity index, particle size, drug encapsulation efficiency (EE%), and zeta potential of 0.457 ± 0.05, 196.33 ± 6.45 nm, 86.15 ± 0.58 %, and − 20.73 ± 0.98 mV, respectively. ATR release from the Atrosome gel followed the first-order kinetic model and showed no cytotoxicity in the in vitro cytotoxicity test. Cell viability (human foreskin fibroblast cell line) was nearly 99%. An excision wound model was also applied in male Wistar rats to examine the in vivo efficacy of the optimized formulation, followed by investigating malondialdehyde (MDA, an end-product of lipid peroxidation), superoxide dismutase (SOD, an endogenous antioxidant), hydroxyproline levels, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in skin tissue samples. MDA significantly decreased in the Atrosome gel group after 21 days, while GPx, SOD, and hydroxyproline levels demonstrated an increase. According to histological results, rats receiving Atrosomes were treated effectively faster when compared to the other formulation used.
Original languageEnglish
Article number81
Number of pages16
JournalAAPS PharmSciTech
Volume23
Issue number3
Early online date9 Mar 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2022

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