BoltVision: A Comparative Analysis of CNN, CCT, and ViT in Achieving High Accuracy for Missing Bolt Classification in Train Components

Mujadded Al Rabbani Alif, Muhammad Hussain, Gareth Tucker, Simon Iwnicki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Maintenance and safety inspection of trains is a critical element of providing a safe and reliable train service. Checking for the presence of bolts is an essential part of train inspection, which is currently, typically carried out during visual inspections. There is an opportunity to automate bolt inspection using machine vision with edge devices. One particular challenge is the implementation of such inspection mechanisms on edge devices, which necessitates using lighter models to ensure efficiency. Traditional methods have often fallen short of the required object detection performance, thus demonstrating the need for a more advanced approach. To address this challenge, researchers have been exploring the use of deep learning algorithms and computer vision techniques to improve the accuracy and reliability of bolt detection on edge devices. High precision in identifying absent bolts in train components is essential to avoid potential mishaps and system malfunctions. This paper presents “BoltVision”, a comparative analysis of three cutting-edge machine learning models: convolutional neural networks (CNNs), vision transformers (ViTs), and compact convolutional transformers (CCTs). This study illustrates the superior assessment capabilities of these models and discusses their effectiveness in addressing the prevalent issue of edge devices. Results show that BoltVision, utilising a pre-trained ViT base, achieves a remarkable 93% accuracy in classifying missing bolts. These results underscore the potential of BoltVision in tackling specific safety inspection challenges for trains and highlight its effectiveness when deployed on edge devices characterised by constrained computational resources. This attests to the pivotal role of transformer-based architectures in revolutionising predictive maintenance and safety assurance within the rail transportation industry.
Original languageEnglish
Article number93
Number of pages26
Issue number2
Early online date25 Jan 2024
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2024

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