A fully quantum-mechanical model for carrier scattering transport in semiconductor intersubband devices was applied to modelling of carrier dynamics in quantum cascade lasers. The standard model uses the envelope function and effective mass approximations to solve electron band structure under an applied bias. The k · p model has been employed in p-type systems where the more complex band structure requires it. The resulting wave functions are then used to evaluate all relevant carrier-phonon, carrier-carrier and alloy scattering rates from each quantised state to all others within the same and the neighbouring period. This piece of information is then used to construct a rate equation for the equilibrium carrier density in each subband and this set of coupled rate equations are solved self-consistently to obtain the carrier density in each eigenstate. The latter is a fundamental description of the device and can be used to calculate the current density and gain as a function of the applied bias and temperature, which in turn yields the threshold current and expected temperature dependence of the device characteristics. A recent extension which includes a further iteration of an energy balance equation also yields the electron (or hole) temperature over the subbands. This paper will review the method and describe its application to mid-infrared and terahertz, GaAs, GaN, and SiGe cascade laser designs.
|Number of pages
|Acta Physica Polonica A
|Published - 1 Jan 2005
|12th International Symposium on Ultrafast Phenomena in Semiconductors - Vilnius, Lithuania
Duration: 22 Aug 2004 → 25 Aug 2004
Conference number: 12