Challenges and Possible Solutions to Direct-Acting Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs) Dosing in Patients with Extreme Bodyweight and Renal Impairment

Ezekwesiri Michael Nwanosike, Wendy Sunter, Hamid A. Merchant, Barbara R. Conway, Muhammad Ayub Ansari, Syed Shahzad Hasan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article aims to highlight the dosing issues of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with renal impairment and/or obesity in an attempt to develop solutions employing advanced data-driven techniques. DOACs have become widely accepted by clinicians worldwide because of their superior clinical profiles, more predictable pharmacokinetics, and hence more convenient dosing relative to other anticoagulants. However, the optimal dosing of DOACs in extreme bodyweight patients and patients with renal impairment is difficult to achieve using the conventional dosing approach. The standard dosing approach (fixed-dose) is based on limited data from clinical studies. The existing formulae (models) for determining the appropriate doses for these patient groups leads to suboptimal dosing. This problem of mis-dosing is worsened by the lack of standardized laboratory parameters for monitoring the exposure to DOACs in renal failure and extreme bodyweight patients. Model-informed precision dosing (MIPD) encompasses a range of techniques like machine learning and pharmacometrics modelling, which could uncover key variables and relationships as well as shed more light on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of DOACs in patients with extreme bodyweight or renal impairment. Ultimately, this individualized approach—if implemented in clinical practice—could optimise dosing for the DOACs for better safety and efficacy.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
Early online date14 Dec 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 14 Dec 2022

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