Chapter 12 brings together the main findings from the analyses of the ten countries. It identifies a number of developments which are evident in all the countries, including: the wide-ranging, dramatic and, often, rapid pace of organizational, policy and legislative change; the expansion of child welfare systems, particularly of a community based, preventive nature; the growth in formal procedures and 'evidence-based' initiatives; and the increased challenges posed by race and ethnicity. In addition there were important differences. While the countries could still be compared in terms of how far their approaches to child abuse followed a child protection or a family service orientation it was clear that the picture had become much more complex and that these two orientations needed to be up-dated and revised. In addition there was evidence of the emergence of a child-focused orientation where the focus was trying to promote and improve children's development and well-being.