Characterisation methods for powder bed fusion processed surface topography

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Abstract

Powder bed fusion (PBF) is a popular additive manufacturing (AM) process with wide applications in key industrial sectors, including aerospace, automotive, healthcare, defence. However, a deficiency of PBF is its low quality of surface finish. A number of PBF process variables and other factors (e.g. powders, recoater) can influence the surface quality. It is of significant importance to measure and characterise PBF surfaces for the benefits of process optimisation, product performance evaluation and also product design. A state-of-the-art review is given to summarise the current research work on the characterisation of AM surfaces, particularly PBF surfaces. It is recognised that AM processes are different from conventional manufacturing processes and their produced surface topographies are different as well. In this paper, the surface characterisation framework is updated to reflect the unique characteristics of PBF processes. The surface spatial wavelength components and other process signature features are described and their production mechanisms are elaborated. A bespoke surface characterisation procedure is developed based on the updated framework. The robust Gaussian regression filter and the morphological filters are proposed to be used for the separation of the waviness component due to their robustness. The watershed segmentation is enhanced to extract globules from the residual surface. Two AM components produced by electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM), are measured and characterised by the proposed methodology. Both of the two filters are qualified for the extraction of melted tracks. The watershed segmentation can enable the extraction of globules. The standard surface texture parameters of different surface wavelength components are compared. A set of bespoke parameters are intentionally developed to offer a quantitative evaluation of the globules.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalPrecision Engineering
Volume57
Early online date19 Sep 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2019

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Surface topography
Fusion reactions
Powders
3D printers
Watersheds
Electron beam melting
Wavelength
Product design
Surface properties
Melting
Textures
Lasers

Cite this

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title = "Characterisation methods for powder bed fusion processed surface topography",
abstract = "Powder bed fusion (PBF) is a popular additive manufacturing (AM) process with wide applications in key industrial sectors, including aerospace, automotive, healthcare, defence. However, a deficiency of PBF is its low quality of surface finish. A number of PBF process variables and other factors (e.g. powders, recoater) can influence the surface quality. It is of significant importance to measure and characterise PBF surfaces for the benefits of process optimisation, product performance evaluation and also product design. A state-of-the-art review is given to summarise the current research work on the characterisation of AM surfaces, particularly PBF surfaces. It is recognised that AM processes are different from conventional manufacturing processes and their produced surface topographies are different as well. In this paper, the surface characterisation framework is updated to reflect the unique characteristics of PBF processes. The surface spatial wavelength components and other process signature features are described and their production mechanisms are elaborated. A bespoke surface characterisation procedure is developed based on the updated framework. The robust Gaussian regression filter and the morphological filters are proposed to be used for the separation of the waviness component due to their robustness. The watershed segmentation is enhanced to extract globules from the residual surface. Two AM components produced by electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM), are measured and characterised by the proposed methodology. Both of the two filters are qualified for the extraction of melted tracks. The watershed segmentation can enable the extraction of globules. The standard surface texture parameters of different surface wavelength components are compared. A set of bespoke parameters are intentionally developed to offer a quantitative evaluation of the globules.",
keywords = "Surface texture, Surface characterisation, Additive manufacturing, Powder bed fusion",
author = "Shan Lou and Xiangqian Jiang and Wenjuan Sun and Wenhan Zeng and Luca Pagani and Paul Scott",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.precisioneng.2018.09.007",
language = "English",
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journal = "Precision Engineering",
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AU - Lou, Shan

AU - Jiang, Xiangqian

AU - Sun, Wenjuan

AU - Zeng, Wenhan

AU - Pagani, Luca

AU - Scott, Paul

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - Powder bed fusion (PBF) is a popular additive manufacturing (AM) process with wide applications in key industrial sectors, including aerospace, automotive, healthcare, defence. However, a deficiency of PBF is its low quality of surface finish. A number of PBF process variables and other factors (e.g. powders, recoater) can influence the surface quality. It is of significant importance to measure and characterise PBF surfaces for the benefits of process optimisation, product performance evaluation and also product design. A state-of-the-art review is given to summarise the current research work on the characterisation of AM surfaces, particularly PBF surfaces. It is recognised that AM processes are different from conventional manufacturing processes and their produced surface topographies are different as well. In this paper, the surface characterisation framework is updated to reflect the unique characteristics of PBF processes. The surface spatial wavelength components and other process signature features are described and their production mechanisms are elaborated. A bespoke surface characterisation procedure is developed based on the updated framework. The robust Gaussian regression filter and the morphological filters are proposed to be used for the separation of the waviness component due to their robustness. The watershed segmentation is enhanced to extract globules from the residual surface. Two AM components produced by electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM), are measured and characterised by the proposed methodology. Both of the two filters are qualified for the extraction of melted tracks. The watershed segmentation can enable the extraction of globules. The standard surface texture parameters of different surface wavelength components are compared. A set of bespoke parameters are intentionally developed to offer a quantitative evaluation of the globules.

AB - Powder bed fusion (PBF) is a popular additive manufacturing (AM) process with wide applications in key industrial sectors, including aerospace, automotive, healthcare, defence. However, a deficiency of PBF is its low quality of surface finish. A number of PBF process variables and other factors (e.g. powders, recoater) can influence the surface quality. It is of significant importance to measure and characterise PBF surfaces for the benefits of process optimisation, product performance evaluation and also product design. A state-of-the-art review is given to summarise the current research work on the characterisation of AM surfaces, particularly PBF surfaces. It is recognised that AM processes are different from conventional manufacturing processes and their produced surface topographies are different as well. In this paper, the surface characterisation framework is updated to reflect the unique characteristics of PBF processes. The surface spatial wavelength components and other process signature features are described and their production mechanisms are elaborated. A bespoke surface characterisation procedure is developed based on the updated framework. The robust Gaussian regression filter and the morphological filters are proposed to be used for the separation of the waviness component due to their robustness. The watershed segmentation is enhanced to extract globules from the residual surface. Two AM components produced by electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM), are measured and characterised by the proposed methodology. Both of the two filters are qualified for the extraction of melted tracks. The watershed segmentation can enable the extraction of globules. The standard surface texture parameters of different surface wavelength components are compared. A set of bespoke parameters are intentionally developed to offer a quantitative evaluation of the globules.

KW - Surface texture

KW - Surface characterisation

KW - Additive manufacturing

KW - Powder bed fusion

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SN - 0141-6359

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