Characterization and sonochemical synthesis of black phosphorus from red phosphorus

Sandra H. Aldave, Maruthi N. Yogeesh, Weinan Zhu, Joonseok Kim, Sushant S. Sonde, Avinash P. Nayak, Deji Akinwande

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)


Phosphorene is a new two-dimensional material which is commonly prepared by exfoliation from black phosphorus bulk crystals that historically have been synthesized from white phosphorus under high-pressure conditions. The few layers of"Qphosphorene have a direct band gap in the range of 0.3¡V2 eVand high mobility at room temperature comparable to epitaxial graphene. These characteristics"Q can be used for the design of high speed digital circuits, radio frequency circuits, flexible and printed systems, and optoelectronic devices. In this work, we synthesized black phosphorus from red phosphorus, which is a safer solid precursor, using sonochemistry. Furthermore, via a variety of microscopy and spectroscopy techniques, we report characterization results of the sonochemically synthesized black phosphorus in addition to the commercial black phosphorus. Finally, we describe the air stability of black phosphors and the crystalline structure of the synthesized material. This is the first result of sonochemical or solution-based synthesis of black phosphorus based on readily available low-cost red phosphorus. This solution-based synthesis of black phosphorus is suitable for printable applications of nanomaterial.

Original languageEnglish
Article number014007
Journal2D Materials
Issue number1
Early online date22 Feb 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2016
Externally publishedYes


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