Condition monitoring and intelligent diagnosis of rolling element bearings under constant/variable load and speed conditions

Ali Moshrefzadeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Citations (Scopus)


Extensive research has been conducted for intelligent fault diagnosis and prognosis of rolling element bearings, a vital component in every rotating machinery, and many robust and reliable techniques have been developed thus far. The majority of the proposed approaches, however, are established for constant operational conditions and therefore encounter difficulties when working conditions vary, which is common in industrial applications. The reason is that many characteristics of a normal state of a system in one working condition might be similar to the characteristics of a defected one in another working condition. The aim of this paper is to develop a method that can differentiate between different health states of machinery, regardless of load and speed conditions. For this purpose, a newly proposed approach, namely spectral amplitude modulation (SAM), is employed to highlight various components of a signal with different energy levels. Subsequently, the impulsivity of these extracted signals’ envelope spectrum is computed to quantify their cyclostationarity level. These quantities could be further utilized as the input variables of machine learning algorithms for automated and intelligent diagnosis of bearings. In this paper, two methods for data classification, namely support vector machine (SVM) and subspace k-nearest neighbors, are employed. Moreover, the computed impulsiveness of signals contains information about the health state of machinery and therefore could be employed as a health indicator for online condition monitoring of machines. To thoroughly assess the potential of the proposed method for condition monitoring and intelligent diagnosis of machinery in constant and highly variable working conditions, it is implemented on data collected from three distinct test rigs, namely the IMS, PoliTo and FEMTO data sets. The damages on bearings in those experiments have different severity levels, types, and they are located on different components of the bearings. In addition to localized defects, distributed faults, which are advanced and critical stages of defects, are also studied in this research. This type of defect is more difficult to detect and has been largely overlooked due to the fact that the characteristics of its signals are different from localized ones and similar to other modulation sources.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107153
Number of pages26
JournalMechanical Systems and Signal Processing
Early online date25 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2021
Externally publishedYes


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