Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Inventory of Personality Organization-Reality Testing Subscale

Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Andrew Parker, Kenneth Drinkwater, R. Stephen Walsh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


The reality testing dimension of the Inventory of Personality Organization, the IPO-RT, has emerged as an important index of proneness to reality testing deficits. However, to date few studies have examined the factorial structure of the IPO-RT in isolation. This is an important and necessary development because studies use the IPO-RT as a discrete measure. Additionally, psychometric evaluation of the IPO suggests alternative factorial solutions. Specifically, recent work supports multidimensionality, whereas initial IPO assessment evinced a unidimensional structure. Accordingly, this study, using a heterogeneous sample (N = 652), tested the fit of several factorial models (one-factor, four-factor oblique, second-order, and bifactor) via maximum likelihood with bootstrapping due to multivariate non-normality. Analysis revealed superior fit for the bifactor solution (correlated errors) (CFI = 0.965, SRMR = 0.036, RMSEA = 0.042). This model comprised a general reality testing dimension alongside four subfactors (auditory and visual hallucinations, delusional thinking, social deficits, and confusion). Inter-factor correlations were in the moderate range. Item loadings and omega reliability supported the notion that the IPO-RT emphasizes a single latent construct. The model demonstrated invariance across gender and partial age invariance. Overall, from a psychometric perspective, the IPO-RT functioned effectively at both global and, to an extent, factorial levels. Findings recommend that the IPO-RT should be scored as a total scale, and rather than treat subscales independently, future studies should consider examining factor variance alongside overall scale scores.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1116
Number of pages12
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jul 2018
Externally publishedYes


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