Construct Validity and Dimensionality of the Measure of Criminal Social Identity within a Sample of American, Pakistani, and Polish inmates

Nicole Sherretts, Dominic Willmott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose
The purpose of this paper is to test the construct validity and dimensionality of the measure of criminal social identity (MCSI) within both a combined sample of American, Pakistani, and Polish inmates, as well as examined as individual country samples.

Design/methodology/approach
Adopting a cross-sectional survey design, the opportunistic sample consisted of offenders incarcerated in three different countries; 351 inmates from Poland, 501 from the USA, and 319 from Pakistan (combined data set n=1,171), with inmates completing anonymous, self-administered, paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Traditional confirmatory factor analysis, along with confirmatory bi-factor modelling, was used in order to examine the fit of four different models of criminal social identity (CSI).

Findings
Results revealed that data were best explained by a three-factor model of CSI (cognitive centrality, in-group ties, and in-group affect) within both combined and individual offender samples. Composite reliability indicated that the three factors were measured with very good reliability.

Research limitations/implications
Validation of the MCSI within the large cross-cultural combined prison sample provides substantial support for the measure’s reliability and utility across diverse offender samples. Consideration of low factor loadings of items one and three for the Pakistan data set and item two for the US data set, leads the researchers to outline possible recommendations that these questions be reworded and additional items be added.

Originality/value
This is the first study to validate MCSI cross-culturally and specifically utilising a western prison sample, consisting of male and female offenders.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)134-143
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Criminal Psychology
Volume6
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016

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Social Identification
construct validity
offender
Prisons
Pakistan
correctional institution
Poland
Statistical Factor Analysis
factor analysis
Group
Cross-Sectional Studies
Research Personnel
questionnaire
methodology
Research
Datasets

Cite this

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title = "Construct Validity and Dimensionality of the Measure of Criminal Social Identity within a Sample of American, Pakistani, and Polish inmates",
abstract = "PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to test the construct validity and dimensionality of the measure of criminal social identity (MCSI) within both a combined sample of American, Pakistani, and Polish inmates, as well as examined as individual country samples.Design/methodology/approachAdopting a cross-sectional survey design, the opportunistic sample consisted of offenders incarcerated in three different countries; 351 inmates from Poland, 501 from the USA, and 319 from Pakistan (combined data set n=1,171), with inmates completing anonymous, self-administered, paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Traditional confirmatory factor analysis, along with confirmatory bi-factor modelling, was used in order to examine the fit of four different models of criminal social identity (CSI).FindingsResults revealed that data were best explained by a three-factor model of CSI (cognitive centrality, in-group ties, and in-group affect) within both combined and individual offender samples. Composite reliability indicated that the three factors were measured with very good reliability.Research limitations/implicationsValidation of the MCSI within the large cross-cultural combined prison sample provides substantial support for the measure’s reliability and utility across diverse offender samples. Consideration of low factor loadings of items one and three for the Pakistan data set and item two for the US data set, leads the researchers to outline possible recommendations that these questions be reworded and additional items be added.Originality/valueThis is the first study to validate MCSI cross-culturally and specifically utilising a western prison sample, consisting of male and female offenders.",
keywords = "Confirmatory factor analysis, Criminal social identity, Construct validity, Bi-factor modelling, Cross-cultural prison research, MCSI, Measure of criminal social identity",
author = "Nicole Sherretts and Dominic Willmott",
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doi = "10.1108/JCP-07-2016-0020",
language = "English",
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AU - Sherretts, Nicole

AU - Willmott, Dominic

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N2 - PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to test the construct validity and dimensionality of the measure of criminal social identity (MCSI) within both a combined sample of American, Pakistani, and Polish inmates, as well as examined as individual country samples.Design/methodology/approachAdopting a cross-sectional survey design, the opportunistic sample consisted of offenders incarcerated in three different countries; 351 inmates from Poland, 501 from the USA, and 319 from Pakistan (combined data set n=1,171), with inmates completing anonymous, self-administered, paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Traditional confirmatory factor analysis, along with confirmatory bi-factor modelling, was used in order to examine the fit of four different models of criminal social identity (CSI).FindingsResults revealed that data were best explained by a three-factor model of CSI (cognitive centrality, in-group ties, and in-group affect) within both combined and individual offender samples. Composite reliability indicated that the three factors were measured with very good reliability.Research limitations/implicationsValidation of the MCSI within the large cross-cultural combined prison sample provides substantial support for the measure’s reliability and utility across diverse offender samples. Consideration of low factor loadings of items one and three for the Pakistan data set and item two for the US data set, leads the researchers to outline possible recommendations that these questions be reworded and additional items be added.Originality/valueThis is the first study to validate MCSI cross-culturally and specifically utilising a western prison sample, consisting of male and female offenders.

AB - PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to test the construct validity and dimensionality of the measure of criminal social identity (MCSI) within both a combined sample of American, Pakistani, and Polish inmates, as well as examined as individual country samples.Design/methodology/approachAdopting a cross-sectional survey design, the opportunistic sample consisted of offenders incarcerated in three different countries; 351 inmates from Poland, 501 from the USA, and 319 from Pakistan (combined data set n=1,171), with inmates completing anonymous, self-administered, paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Traditional confirmatory factor analysis, along with confirmatory bi-factor modelling, was used in order to examine the fit of four different models of criminal social identity (CSI).FindingsResults revealed that data were best explained by a three-factor model of CSI (cognitive centrality, in-group ties, and in-group affect) within both combined and individual offender samples. Composite reliability indicated that the three factors were measured with very good reliability.Research limitations/implicationsValidation of the MCSI within the large cross-cultural combined prison sample provides substantial support for the measure’s reliability and utility across diverse offender samples. Consideration of low factor loadings of items one and three for the Pakistan data set and item two for the US data set, leads the researchers to outline possible recommendations that these questions be reworded and additional items be added.Originality/valueThis is the first study to validate MCSI cross-culturally and specifically utilising a western prison sample, consisting of male and female offenders.

KW - Confirmatory factor analysis

KW - Criminal social identity

KW - Construct validity

KW - Bi-factor modelling

KW - Cross-cultural prison research

KW - MCSI

KW - Measure of criminal social identity

U2 - 10.1108/JCP-07-2016-0020

DO - 10.1108/JCP-07-2016-0020

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SP - 134

EP - 143

JO - Journal of Criminal Psychology

JF - Journal of Criminal Psychology

SN - 2009-3829

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ER -