Convergence Across the United States: Evidence from Panel ESTAR Unit Root Test

Chi Keung Lau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Many empirical studies try to test whether there is income convergence across metropolitan areas in the continental United States. Drennan et al. (Journal of Economic Geography 4(5), 2004) claim that income among metropolitan economies is diverging for the period 1969–2001, after applying univariate unit root tests to the time series data. This paper brings new information to this area of study by using the nonlinear panel unit root test of the Exponential Smooth Auto-Regressive Augmented Dickey–Fuller (ESTAR-ADF) unit root test on the time series data for the period 1929–2005. Our results find evidence of stationarity for time series and thereby support beta and sigma convergence among states in a nonlinear setup. However, when the non-linear test encompasses cross section dependence as advocated by Cerrato et al. (2008), the evidence is attenuated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)52-64
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Advances in Economic Research
Issue number1
Early online date23 Oct 2009
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2010
Externally publishedYes


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