Cost of Illness Analysis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Findings from a Lower-Middle Income Country

Muhammad Daoud Butt, Siew Chin Ong, Muahammad Umar Wahab, Muhammad Fawad Rasool, Fahad Saleem, Adnan Hashmi, Ahsan Sajjad, Furqan Aslam Chaudhry, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Diabetes is a major chronic illness that negatively influences individuals and society. Therefore, this research aimed to analyze and evaluate the cost associated with diabetes management, specific to the Pakistani Type 2 diabetes population. Research scheme and methods: A survey randomly collected information and data from diabetes patients throughout Pakistan out-patient clinics. Direct and indirect costs were evaluated, and data were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: An overall of 1839 diabetes patients participated in the study. The results have shown that direct and indirect costs are positively associated with the participants’ socio-demographic characteristics, except for household income and educational status. The annual total cost of diabetes care was USD 740.1, amongst which the share of the direct cost was USD 646.7, and the indirect cost was USD 93.65. Most direct costs comprised medicine (USD 274.5) and hospitalization (USD 319.7). In contrast, the productivity loss of the patients had the highest contribution to the indirect cost (USD 81.36). Conclusion: This study showed that direct costs significantly contributed to diabetes’s overall cost in Pakistan and overall diabetes management estimated to be 1.67% (USD 24.42 billion) of the country’s total gross domestic product. The expense of medications and hospitalization mostly drove the direct cost. Additionally, patients’ loss of productivity contributed significantly to the indirect cost. It is high time for healthcare policymakers to address this huge healthcare burden. It is time to develop a thorough diabetes management plan to be implemented nationwide.
Original languageEnglish
Article number12611
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2022


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