Cyber Threats Facing Autonomous and Connected Vehicles: Future Challenges

Simon Parkinson, Paul Ward, Kyle Wilson, Jonathan Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

360 Citations (Scopus)


Vehicles are currently being developed and sold with increasing levels of connectivity and automation. As with all networked computing devices, increased connectivity often results in a heightened risk of a cyber security attack. Furthermore, increased automation exacerbates any risk by increasing the opportunities for the adversary to implement a successful attack. In this paper, a large volume of publicly accessible literature is reviewed and compartmentalized based on the vulnerabilities identified and mitigation techniques developed. This review highlighted that the majority of studies are reactive and vulnerabilities are often discovered by friendly adversaries (white-hat hackers). Many gaps in the knowledge base were identified. Priority should be given to address these knowledge gaps to minimize future cyber security risks in the connected and autonomous vehicle sector.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2898-2915
Number of pages18
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number11
Early online date6 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017


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