This study addresses the problem of evaluation of strength of masonry walls. In-plane behavior of masonry panels has been studied under monotonic diagonal-compression and shear-compression loading in quasi-static test facility. The results of 35 laboratory and in situ tests are analyzed to show that in the case of the diagonal compression test results are lower than the strength of masonry walls evaluated trough the shear-compression test, highlighting the problem of choosing the test which best simulates to the real behavior of the masonry when stressed by lateral loads. A presentation is also given of the results of a F.E. investigation for shear strength evaluation of masonry walls. F.E. modeling non-linear procedure was used for the representation of masonry panels. The numerical simulations are compared with experimental results and the reliability of the different finite element models is discussed, thus confirming the different shear strength values measured in the experimental campaign.