Dimensionality of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ48)

John L Perry, Doug Strycharczyk, Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Kostas A Papageorgiou, Peter J Clough

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Currently there is debate as to whether mental toughness is a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. To investigate the dimensionality of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire 48-items (MTQ48), a widely used measure of mental toughness, we examined data from a sample of 78,947 participants. A series of exploratory structural equation models (ESEM) assessed unidimensional, multidimensional, and bifactor solutions. Overall, results supported a bifactor conceptualization of mental toughness. Bifactor analysis was consistent with the use of a general factor score. In conclusion, the authors argue that mental toughness should be considered as an umbrella term representing a general trait comprised of related constructs that provide a psychological advantage in performance and promote positive mental health. Finally, this article identifies limitations in the existing measurement of mental toughness and proposes necessary directions in future research.

Original languageEnglish
Article number654836
Number of pages7
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jul 2021


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