Directional Analysis of Early Reflections in Small Shoebox-Shaped Listening Rooms

Alan Pawlak, Hyunkook Lee, Aki Mäkivirta, Thomas Lund

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Critical listening rooms aim at providing an acoustically controlled environment for the accurate evaluation and production of audio content. In this study, the dimensions of existing ITU-R BS 1116-compliant critical listening rooms are surveyed using data obtained from existing literature and publications. To further understand the early reflection patterns in ITU-R BS 1116-compliant critical listening rooms, this study simulates first- and second-order reflections using the Image Source Method (ISM) for six different source positions and one listener position. Employing the agglomerative clustering (hierarchical) algorithm, the first and second-order reflections are analysed separately and visualised on the Mollweide projection. The results indicate a general agreement in the first-order reflection patterns across the rooms using six clusters, while the second-order reflection patterns are more dispersed within clusters. This study presents a general summary of the directional patterns of early reflections in critical listening rooms, and identifies regions that require further investigation to fully comprehend their perceptual significance.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAES Europe 2023
Subtitle of host publication154th Audio Engineering Society Convention
EditorsNils Peters, Sebastian Schlecht
PublisherAudio Engineering Society
ISBN (Electronic)9781713877783
ISBN (Print)9781942220411
Publication statusPublished - 13 May 2023
EventAES Europe 2023: 154th Audio Engineering Society Convention - Espoo, Helsinki, Finland
Duration: 13 May 202315 May 2023
Conference number: 154


ConferenceAES Europe 2023: 154th Audio Engineering Society Convention
CityEspoo, Helsinki

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