Domestic Violence Against Women in Nepal: A Systematic Review of Risk Factors

Bindu Devkota Sapkota, Padam Simkhada, Dillon Newton, Sara Parker

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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A systematic review was conducted to examine the factors that put women at risk of domestic violence in Nepal. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), PubMed, Cochrane, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched supplemented by searching of the reference list manually. Of the 143 studies identified 24 were included in the final review. Search strategy was developed, and studies were included if they considered female participants (age 15-49 years) in heterosexual relationship, with exposure of different factors and whose outcomes were the magnitude of any form of violence (physical, sexual, and emotional/psychological). The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool was used to assess the quality of the studies included. The findings are categorized based on the four levels of the ecological framework. At the individual level, the alcohol consumption level of husband, education level of both women and men, women's age at the time of marriage and childhood exposure to violence were found to be highly prevalent risk factors. At the relationship level, most prevalent risk factors were controlling husband and decision-making capacity of women. At the community level, belonging to underprivileged community or low caste system and living in Terai region were the risk factors. At the societal level, patriarchal belief and norms supporting violence were the risk factors. The complex nature of violence against women in Nepal requires culturally sensitive interventions along with organized efforts from the local and intra government to improve the status of Nepalese women at all levels of the ecological framework.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages18
JournalTrauma, Violence, and Abuse
Early online date30 Jan 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 30 Jan 2024

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