Purpose: As Rosa damascena essential oils (RDEOs) have antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and insecticidal activity, they could therefore be useful in the treatment of breast cancer. In the current study, an attempt was made to incorporate RDEO in a lipid-based drug delivery system, namely, nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) to boost its anticancer effect compared to cisplatin.
Methods: Gas chromatography (GC) identified the chemical compositions of RDEO. RDEO-NLCs were prepared using the probe ultrasonication method. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized in terms of particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential by dynamic light scattering. The encapsulation efficiency of the formulations and their loading capacity were also determined, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to evaluate the morphology of the optimal formulation (quoted as RDEO-NLC2). The anticancer effect of RDEO-NLC2 on MDA-MB-231 cells and apoptosis were assessed using MTT and in vitro cellular assays respectively.
Results: TEM result revealed a distinct spherical shape for RDEO-NLC2, with an average particle size of 78.39 ± 1.5 nm obtained by Zetasizer. The results also showed that the obtained particles had a negative surface charge (− 31.0 mV) with a polydispersity index of 0.28 ± 0.01. The chemotherapy drug cisplatin showed more cytotoxicity than RDEO-NLC2 against cancer cells. Cellular data demonstrated that RDEO-NLC2 like cisplatin can decline the viability of MDA-MB-231 cells through apoptosis compared to cells treated with the placebo and free RDEO.
Conclusion: RDEO-NLC2 has the ability to stimulate apoptosis in the human BC cell line MDA-MN-231; hence, it can be beneficial in the treatment of patients suffering from breast cancer.