Effects of displacing radiation on graphite observed using in situ transmission electron microscopy

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Graphite is used as a moderator and structural component in the United Kingdom's fleet of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors (AGRs) and features in two Generation IV reactor concepts: the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR). Under the temperature and neutron irradiation conditions of an AGR, nuclear-grade graphite demonstrates significant changes to it mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. These changes include considerable dimensional change with expansion in the c-direction and contraction in the a/b-directions. As the United Kingdom's AGRs approach their scheduled decommissioning dates, it is essential that this behaviour be understood in order to determine under what reactor conditions their operating lifetimes can be safely extended. Two models have been proposed for the dimensional change in graphite due to displacing radiation: the "Standard Model" and "Ruck and Tuck". The Standard Model draws on a conventional model of Frenkel pair production, point defect migration and agglomeration but fails to explain several key experimental observations. The Ruck and Tuck model has been proposed by M.I. Heggie et al. and is based upon the movement of basal dislocation to create folds in the "graphene" sheets and seeks not only to account for the dimension change but also the other phenomena not explained by the Standard Model. In order to test the validity of these models, work is underway to gather experimental evidence of the microstructural evolution of graphite under displacing radiation. One of the primary techniques for this is transmission electron microscopy with in situ ion irradiation. This paper presents the results of electron irradiation at a range of energies (performed in order to separate the effects of the electron and ion beams) and of combined electron and ion beam irradiation.

LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationMaterial Challenges in Current and Future Nuclear Technologies
EditorsKarl R. Whittle, Blas P. Uberuaga, Marjorie Bertolus, Robin W. Grimes
PublisherCambridge University Press
Pages67-73
Number of pages7
Volume1383
ISBN (Print)9781605113609
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jun 2012
EventMaterials Research Society Fall Meeting & Exhibit - Boston, United States
Duration: 28 Nov 20112 Dec 2011
https://www.mrs.org/fall2011 (Link to Event Details)

Other

OtherMaterials Research Society Fall Meeting & Exhibit
Abbreviated titleMRS
CountryUnited States
CityBoston
Period28/11/112/12/11
Internet address

Fingerprint

Graphite
gas cooled reactors
graphite
reactors
Transmission electron microscopy
Radiation
transmission electron microscopy
United Kingdom
Gas cooled reactors
radiation
ion beams
decommissioning
electron beams
moderators
irradiation
molten salts
neutron irradiation
electron irradiation
Ion beams
pair production

Cite this

Hinks, J. A., Jones, A. N., & Donnelly, S. E. (2012). Effects of displacing radiation on graphite observed using in situ transmission electron microscopy. In K. R. Whittle, B. P. Uberuaga, M. Bertolus, & R. W. Grimes (Eds.), Material Challenges in Current and Future Nuclear Technologies (Vol. 1383, pp. 67-73). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1557/opl.2012.139
Hinks, J. A. ; Jones, A. N. ; Donnelly, S. E. / Effects of displacing radiation on graphite observed using in situ transmission electron microscopy. Material Challenges in Current and Future Nuclear Technologies. editor / Karl R. Whittle ; Blas P. Uberuaga ; Marjorie Bertolus ; Robin W. Grimes. Vol. 1383 Cambridge University Press, 2012. pp. 67-73
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Hinks, JA, Jones, AN & Donnelly, SE 2012, Effects of displacing radiation on graphite observed using in situ transmission electron microscopy. in KR Whittle, BP Uberuaga, M Bertolus & RW Grimes (eds), Material Challenges in Current and Future Nuclear Technologies. vol. 1383, Cambridge University Press, pp. 67-73, Materials Research Society Fall Meeting & Exhibit, Boston, United States, 28/11/11. https://doi.org/10.1557/opl.2012.139

Effects of displacing radiation on graphite observed using in situ transmission electron microscopy. / Hinks, J. A.; Jones, A. N.; Donnelly, S. E.

Material Challenges in Current and Future Nuclear Technologies. ed. / Karl R. Whittle; Blas P. Uberuaga; Marjorie Bertolus; Robin W. Grimes. Vol. 1383 Cambridge University Press, 2012. p. 67-73.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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N2 - Graphite is used as a moderator and structural component in the United Kingdom's fleet of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors (AGRs) and features in two Generation IV reactor concepts: the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR). Under the temperature and neutron irradiation conditions of an AGR, nuclear-grade graphite demonstrates significant changes to it mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. These changes include considerable dimensional change with expansion in the c-direction and contraction in the a/b-directions. As the United Kingdom's AGRs approach their scheduled decommissioning dates, it is essential that this behaviour be understood in order to determine under what reactor conditions their operating lifetimes can be safely extended. Two models have been proposed for the dimensional change in graphite due to displacing radiation: the "Standard Model" and "Ruck and Tuck". The Standard Model draws on a conventional model of Frenkel pair production, point defect migration and agglomeration but fails to explain several key experimental observations. The Ruck and Tuck model has been proposed by M.I. Heggie et al. and is based upon the movement of basal dislocation to create folds in the "graphene" sheets and seeks not only to account for the dimension change but also the other phenomena not explained by the Standard Model. In order to test the validity of these models, work is underway to gather experimental evidence of the microstructural evolution of graphite under displacing radiation. One of the primary techniques for this is transmission electron microscopy with in situ ion irradiation. This paper presents the results of electron irradiation at a range of energies (performed in order to separate the effects of the electron and ion beams) and of combined electron and ion beam irradiation.

AB - Graphite is used as a moderator and structural component in the United Kingdom's fleet of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors (AGRs) and features in two Generation IV reactor concepts: the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR). Under the temperature and neutron irradiation conditions of an AGR, nuclear-grade graphite demonstrates significant changes to it mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. These changes include considerable dimensional change with expansion in the c-direction and contraction in the a/b-directions. As the United Kingdom's AGRs approach their scheduled decommissioning dates, it is essential that this behaviour be understood in order to determine under what reactor conditions their operating lifetimes can be safely extended. Two models have been proposed for the dimensional change in graphite due to displacing radiation: the "Standard Model" and "Ruck and Tuck". The Standard Model draws on a conventional model of Frenkel pair production, point defect migration and agglomeration but fails to explain several key experimental observations. The Ruck and Tuck model has been proposed by M.I. Heggie et al. and is based upon the movement of basal dislocation to create folds in the "graphene" sheets and seeks not only to account for the dimension change but also the other phenomena not explained by the Standard Model. In order to test the validity of these models, work is underway to gather experimental evidence of the microstructural evolution of graphite under displacing radiation. One of the primary techniques for this is transmission electron microscopy with in situ ion irradiation. This paper presents the results of electron irradiation at a range of energies (performed in order to separate the effects of the electron and ion beams) and of combined electron and ion beam irradiation.

KW - nuclear materials

KW - radiation effects

KW - transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

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Hinks JA, Jones AN, Donnelly SE. Effects of displacing radiation on graphite observed using in situ transmission electron microscopy. In Whittle KR, Uberuaga BP, Bertolus M, Grimes RW, editors, Material Challenges in Current and Future Nuclear Technologies. Vol. 1383. Cambridge University Press. 2012. p. 67-73 https://doi.org/10.1557/opl.2012.139