Enhanced PDR-BLE Compensation Mechanism Based on HMM and AWCLA for Improving Indoor Localization

Harun Jamil, Faiza Qayyum, Faisal Jamil, Do Hyeun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents an enhanced PDR-BLE compensation mechanism for improving indoor localization, which is considerably resilient against variant uncertainties. The proposed method of ePDR-BLE compensation mechanism (EPBCM) takes advantage of the non-requirement of linearization of the system around its current state in an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and Kalman filter (KF) in smoothing of received signal strength indicator (RSSI) values. In this paper, a fusion of conflicting information and the activity detection approach of an object in an indoor environment contemplates varying magnitude of accelerometer values based on the hidden Markov model (HMM). On the estimated orientation, the proposed approach remunerates the inadvertent body acceleration and magnetic distortion sensor data. Moreover, EPBCM can precisely calculate the velocity and position by reducing the position drift, which gives rise to a fault in zero-velocity and heading error. The developed EPBCM localization algorithm using Bluetooth low energy beacons (BLE) was applied and analyzed in an indoor environment. The experiments conducted in an indoor scenario shows the results of various activities performed by the object and achieves better orientation estimation, zero velocity measurements, and high position accuracy than other methods in the literature.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6972
Number of pages31
Issue number21
Early online date21 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Enhanced PDR-BLE Compensation Mechanism Based on HMM and AWCLA for Improving Indoor Localization'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this