Estimating streamwater concentrations of aluminium released from streambeds during ‘acid episodes’

E. Tipping, J. Hopwood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Rates of release of monomeric aluminium ‐ Alm ‐ were determined for streambed materials placed in a laboratory channel and exposed to acid water, and values of the release rate coefficient, R (μmol Al released per m2 of bed per second) were calculated. Estimates of R were also made from the reported results of experiments in which streams were artificially acidified. The values of R ranged from 0.1 to 3.2 μmol m−2 s−1. They decreased with increase in pH, and were greater for beds containing substantial amounts of the liverwort Nardia compressa than for pebble and/or gravel (mineral) beds. Calculations, using, the estimates of R, were performed to assess the contribution of bed‐derived Al to streamwater concentrations, under conditions where acid water enters stream channels having exchanged negligible H+ for Al3+ or base cations in the soil. For typical high‐discharge conditions, considerable concentrations of Al are possible. For a liverwort‐rich bed exposed to water of initial pH 3.5 there may be as much as 60 μM Al in the streamwater. At the other extreme, a mineral bed subjected to pH 4.5 water would yield less than 1 μM Alm. Streambed stores of releasable Al appear sufficient to supply Al to the water for significant lengths of time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)703-712
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Technology Letters
Volume9
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1988
Externally publishedYes

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streamwater
acid water
Aluminum
aluminum
liverwort
Acids
water yield
Water
acid
stream channel
mineral
pebble
gravel
cation
Minerals
water
Gravel
soil
experiment
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title = "Estimating streamwater concentrations of aluminium released from streambeds during ‘acid episodes’",
abstract = "Rates of release of monomeric aluminium ‐ Alm ‐ were determined for streambed materials placed in a laboratory channel and exposed to acid water, and values of the release rate coefficient, R (μmol Al released per m2 of bed per second) were calculated. Estimates of R were also made from the reported results of experiments in which streams were artificially acidified. The values of R ranged from 0.1 to 3.2 μmol m−2 s−1. They decreased with increase in pH, and were greater for beds containing substantial amounts of the liverwort Nardia compressa than for pebble and/or gravel (mineral) beds. Calculations, using, the estimates of R, were performed to assess the contribution of bed‐derived Al to streamwater concentrations, under conditions where acid water enters stream channels having exchanged negligible H+ for Al3+ or base cations in the soil. For typical high‐discharge conditions, considerable concentrations of Al are possible. For a liverwort‐rich bed exposed to water of initial pH 3.5 there may be as much as 60 μM Al in the streamwater. At the other extreme, a mineral bed subjected to pH 4.5 water would yield less than 1 μM Alm. Streambed stores of releasable Al appear sufficient to supply Al to the water for significant lengths of time.",
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Estimating streamwater concentrations of aluminium released from streambeds during ‘acid episodes’. / Tipping, E.; Hopwood, J.

In: Environmental Technology Letters, Vol. 9, No. 7, 01.01.1988, p. 703-712.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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